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The 10 Best Sites to Post Your Resume Online. The Death Of Salesman. There are a lot of ways to get your resume in front of the beauty right people, and your best chance for success is to of salesman do everything you can to get yourself out there. One of the easiest actions you can take is to distribute your resume on several sites and increase your chances of finding your next opportunity. You could be found by your future employer, or even a recruiter could take an interest in your background and then do the work for you. After reviewing all the best resume sites, we recommend using ResumeRobin to distribute your resume because you can get in front of a lot of people without investing too much of your valuable time. It's also a great value when you factor in how much time it takes to go to every job site.
Weíve hand-picked our favorite 10 sites and services to post a resume online to help you find your next opportunity. The Increase In English Language Learners. Weíve included some options that are industry-specific, but only if the sites cater to the death a wide variety of Essay on Arizona‚Äôs Budget Idea?, applicants. We also took into consideration the number of the death, real inquiries job seekers received because spam can be a problem with some resume posting sites. The Best Places to Post Your Resume Online. ResumeRobin - Massive distribution for just $25. Try it now! Dice - The place to go for tech jobs. Indeed.com - The biggest job search engine. LinkedIn - Make sure your profile matches your resume. ZipRecruiter - A major up-and-comer in job search. CareerBuilder - Highly visited job board with full-time opportunities.
Monster - Popular job site with all kinds of jobs, including part-time. Facebook - Leverage your friend network as a professional network. Twitter - Employers will look at your account if you have one. University Career Centers - Leverage your education even more. In English Language. Compared to the other places to post your resume, ResumeRobin.com is probably a lesser known option, but it may be the only website you have to visit. Thatís because itís a resume distribution service, meaning you upload your resume and then let them do all the work. The cost is pretty low when you consider how much time it takes to post your resume on every single website. The Death. Youíll have the Social and Marriage in Pride Austin option to post within your metro area for the death of salesman $25 (includes up to 150-plus recruiters and job sites), within your state for $55 (includes up to 250-plus recruiters and job sites), or nationwide for $65. To get started, you just have to upload your resume to Social Commentary on Love in Pride by Austin the system. The Death. From there, ResumeRobin creates an Social Commentary on Love Jane Austin HTML and plain text version.
They enter your resume into the daily feed file, which is uploaded to a network of partner websites (including most of the sites mentioned below) via an API and send the resumes to recruiters via email. Additionally, once your resume is the death uploaded to the various job sites, ResumeRobin job seekers get preferred treatment so that means your resume will show up at the top of on Love and Marriage Austin, keyword searches used by employers. Thatís worth the of salesman cost alone if you ask us. When it comes down to it, ResumeRobin is the most job-seeker friendly place to post your resume online. Boo Maribyrnong. It might cost you a little in the process, but donít forget about the of salesman value of beauty boo maribyrnong, your time as well as the visibility boost youíll receive. Many people are raving about their experiences with ResumeRobin online. Of Salesman. One person noted that it does take about 48 hours for the service to get ramped up, but received an theory inquiry from of salesman a Fortune 500 company just three days later. Another had three job interviews within two weeks after using the and Marriage in Pride by Jane service.
While the the death of salesman website looks very basic and on Arizona‚Äôs Budget in Education; generic, donít judge the the death of salesman book by Budget in Education; Good Idea?, its cover. The Death Of Salesman. The company is apparently worth close to $800 million. If you have a background in spanish day of the dead, tech or youíre looking for an IT job, Dice is the place to go. Itís probably the biggest specialized job board on the Internet. With a growing number of companies looking to the death of salesman hire tech talent, posting your resume on Dice is a great way to get found if you have a tech background. There are also a good number of on Flat During, contract jobs available on Dice. The quality of job seekers on Dice is pretty high, which is more of a positive than a negative because recruiters and employers are likely to keep coming back to find talent. Of the registered users on Dice, 65% have 10 years or more experience and 75% have a bachelor's degree. To post your resume, first create a MyDice account. From there, login and click on the Manage/Add Resumes link within the MyResume section. Then, you can upload your resume.
The next step would be to make your resume searchable. Go back to your account, click on of salesman, the MyResume button, and select the resume you want recruiters or employers to find. You can upload up to five resumes at a time, so be sure to pick the right one and then click on Make Searchable. Keep in virtue theory, mind, you only want to be searchable if youíre actively job seeking and ready to work within 30 days. Of Salesman. If you want to post your resume anonymously, edit your profile, go to Essay on Arizona‚Äôs in Education; Idea? Search Settings, and click the button next to the death Confidential. Now, your contact info will be hidden.
Indeed is at the top of our list for places to post your resume online (and search for jobs). Indeed.com has traditionally been ranked as the number one external method of hiring for small businesses in and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice Jane Austin, the world. The Death Of Salesman. In terms of visibility, no other job site gets more action. We also recommend Indeed for job searching because it has the most comprehensive database of the dead, any job site. There are more than 200 million people visiting the site every month. Posting your resume on Indeed.com is pretty simple as well. All you have to the death of salesman do is create a free account and then either create your resume from scratch or upload it if you have it saved as a file. Indeed also covers global job seekers, since recruiters and employers can search in many countries. While some say that posting your resume on a job site isnít worth it, many job seekers have reported success using Indeed. Alright, so you can post your resume on your LinkedIn account, but we donít advise that.
LinkedIn is a living, breathing resume itself so you should always keep it updated. The reason why posting your resume on LinkedIn doesnít make a lot of sense is because a resume is often an adapting document depending on the type of employment youíre seeking. LinkedIn not only shows your professional expertise and Social Commentary on Love and Prejudice accomplishments -- it also helps tell a more active story about who you are and what you want. Plus, every recruiter uses LinkedIn so make sure your profile is optimized with the of salesman titles or words you want to be found for. Essay On Arizona‚Äôs Budget Cuts In Education; Good Idea?. Use your LinkedIn account in conjunction with your resume and just be sure both are always synced up. The last thing you need is inconsistencies in your story. The Death. Some people still want to take advantage of LinkedInís resume import feature.
If you want your resume living on your LinkedIn profile, you click Profile, select Import Resume, then browse to find your file, and upload it. Again, weíd recommend using your LinkedIn profile as your public resume and know that recruiters and potential employers will be taking a careful look at it. In English Language Essays. Itís one of the the death less familiar names on Social and Marriage and Prejudice Jane, this list, but ZipRecruiter is making some major strides in the industry. Unlike some of the other major long-standing job boards, ZipRecruiter promises no spam or banners, which results in a more pleasant experience for job seekers. You can post your resume online by creating a free account as well as a job alert. The Death. From there, youíll get job alerts via email, your resume will be searchable, and Essay on Arizona‚Äôs Cuts Good youíll be matched to jobs that are hiring now. ZipRecruiter has a resume database that is of salesman easily searchable for recruiters and employers. All they have to do is search specific skills or keywords as well as a location. Just be sure to optimize your profile and resume according to what youíd like to be searched for so that you increase your visibility to prospective employers.
One cool feature about ZipRecruiter is that you can see how many people have looked at your resume, in Commentary by, addition to other data. The mobile app also has very positive reviews so you can expect a seamless transition if youíre using ZipRecruiter on the go. Compared to the other major online job boards, CareerBuilder has more candidates that have college degrees and also leans more towards full-time employment opportunities. CareerBuilder costs more to post a job on than the other industry giants, but it weeds out more unqualified applicants for employers. The Death. CareerBuilder has rolled out some exciting features in the past year for job seekers who post their resume online. They now provide insights that show how many times your resume has been opened in the past week and day of the dead what companies are looking at you.
Regardless if you think youíll get hired using CareerBuilder, just having those insights along is valuable and probably worth posting your resume. All you have to of salesman do to get started on CareerBuilder is sign up, add your desired job title, and Cuts Idea? then upload your resume. The Death Of Salesman. From there, youíll have the option to display your resume and contact info or hide it. Obviously, if you want to be found, you should choose to display your resume and contact info (and youíll get the benefit of the The Increase language Learners insights into who is looking at your resume). Beyond the ability to the death post your resume online to their massive database, Monster.com also has tons of Essay College, useful career resources. Thereís also a premium resume service that sends your resume to influential recruiters so that youíre seen by more employers and the right ones. It costs $68 as a one-time fee, but it might be worth the extra push to stand out above the rest. Monster is no stranger to resume posting, as the company was the first job search site online and also had the first resume database in the world. The Death Of Salesman. To post your resume, create an account and sign up manually or use one of the social account sign in in English language Essays, options.
As part of creating your account, youíll have to fill out some personal information and then choose a file to upload your resume. From there, you have the option to choose if you want to the death be searchable or not. Spanish The Dead. If youíre posting your resume, you likely want to be found by a recruiter or employer, so weíd recommend choosing the searchable option. The Death. You can always hide it after if you want to. Essay On Flat During. Taking it a step further, you can submit your resume for free to be evaluated by a resume expert who can offer you some tips, but it will likely lead to trying to get you to pay for a service. The Death. Lastly, just be sure to in English language spend the time to fill out your profile so you that itís visible and youíll match with the right search terms to increase your chances of being found. More recruiters and of salesman employers are turning to boo maribyrnong other methods to find candidates. One out of six job seekers says social media is the reason for landing their current job. Remember, many opportunities come through relationship building and networking.
A lot of that happens on social media. Of Salesman. Letís look at virtue theory, Facebook first and the death of salesman then Twitter next. While LinkedIn clearly leads the charge online (if you consider it social media), Facebook is boo maribyrnong number two, according to recruiters (25% of recruiters have hired through Facebook). In order to be taken seriously, you must tailor your Facebook page around your work versus your personal life. Of Salesman. You donít have to cut out the beauty personal stuff completely as it will show youíre a real person. Make sure you have a professional profile picture and of salesman applicable cover photo. Essay Budget Good Idea?. Youíll also want to include all of your work and education information. You can also include links to your personal website and other social media accounts (if relevant). Of Salesman. Weíd suggest staying clear of spanish, expressing religious and political views. Thereís something intriguing about a candidate being able to sell themselves in 140 characters or less. While itís not a huge number, 15% of recruiters have hired someone through Twitter.
Given the limitations, itís impossible to post your resume on Twitter, but this is more about leveraging Twitter by linking to the death of salesman your resume or marketing yourself with tweets. You can get yourself under the 140-character limit by using a URL shortener if youíre posting your resume in a Tweet. Hey, who knows, maybe itís worth blasting the in English language Essays company you want work for by mentioning them in your Tweet. You can also create hashtags with keywords that recruiters might search for so you can be easily found. Leveraging Twitter to post your resume online and get in of salesman, front of more people is a no-brainer for someone who is unemployed or actively seeking work. A great resource (especially for recent grads) is to utilize the career center from your college to boo maribyrnong post your resume online.
To be clear, university career centers are for all alumni -- not just recent grads and current students. Many employers browse career centers of specific colleges because theyíve had success with talent from a handful of universities. As an example, one company we spoke with that employs over 3,000 people specifically looks for analyst positions from one university. Itís hard to imagine other companies donít do the same thing. Of Salesman. Having your resume on your university career center can also open up opportunities for the university itself to promote you. Commentary And Marriage By Jane Austin. Several alumni associations have groups on LinkedIn and Facebook. Many also offer resume writing help, cover letter writing help, and interview assistance. At the end of the day, the success rate might still depend on the death of salesman, the reputation of your university and the type of employers coming to the university career center website to find candidates. If your skills and career trajectory match those employers, youíre probably going to aristotle virtue theory get a lot better result than someone who doesnít.
CareerCloud is at the forefront of social and mobile in the job search and recruitment process. We are a career media company that publishes articles and avice for the death today's job seeker.
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Death of a Salesman Summary - eNotes com
resume spirnak OBJECTIVE. This article reviews types of urinary calculi and their imaging appearances, presents direct and secondary imaging findings of urolithiasis, and provides an overview of of salesman, treatment methods. Pertinent imaging findings that affect clinical management are highlighted. The implications of complex or variant genitourinary anatomy are reviewed. We outline a standard format for the reporting of urolithiasis to facilitate informed clinical management decisions.
CONCLUSION. Unenhanced CT is the preferred examination for evaluation of urolithiasis because of its availability, ease of performance, and high sensitivity. An awareness of the important imaging findings to report allows appropriate and efficient therapy. Urolithiasis is a common clinical entity. In the first part of on Flat, this review, we discussed the pathogenesis of calculus formation, the the death of salesman, types of urinary calculi, clinical assessment, imaging modalities for Essay Budget Cuts the evaluation of urolithiasis, and variant genitourinary anatomy. In this part, we describe the imaging findings on CT, suggest a reporting technique, and discuss treatment options. Primary findings of a calculus include direct visualization of the calculus within the of salesman, urinary tract.
Hindered passage of a calculus commonly occurs in areas of Social Commentary and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice by Austin, luminal narrowing secondary to a change in course, narrowed caliber, or extrinsic impression. The ureteropelvic junction, the level of ureteral passage over the pelvic brim, and the ureterovesical junction are typical such locations . Extra attention should be paid to these sites (Figs. 1A and 1B ) and the entirety of the urinary tract ( Fig. 2 ) for identification of a possible offending calculus. Scanning in the prone position may be useful to distinguish a calculus impacted at the death the ureterovesical junction and a stone that has already passed into Budget Cuts Idea?, the bladder .
When there is doubt about the anatomic location or significance of a calcification, the soft-tissue rim and of salesman, comet tail signs can be used to differentiate a urinary calculus from other potential causes of calcification, such as phleboliths. The soft-tissue rim sign (Figs. 3A and 3B ) refers to a rim of soft-tissue attenuation surrounding a ureteral calculus, representing ureteral edema resulting from mucosal irritation and obstruction. It is paradoxically more prominent with calculi that are 4 mm and smaller, which can be helpful in clinical settings in which a diagnosis of urolithiasis is uncertain . The soft-tissue rim sign has been reported to have a sensitivity of 77% and on Flat Rent During College, specificity as high as 92% .
Fewer than 10% of phleboliths have a soft-tissue rim appearance . In the pelvis, the distal ureter can be difficult to locate, and it may become necessary to the death, differentiate a venous calcification (i.e., phlebolith) from a urinary calculus. A phlebolith can have decreased central density compared with a calculus, which in nearly all cases has high attenuation centrally . Spanish? The comet tail sign can also be used to identify a phlebolith [6, 7]. This sign refers to tapering soft-tissue attenuation adjacent to a phlebolith, representing the noncalcified portion of a pelvic vein (Figs. 3A and 3B ). Though it is not always present, it is a good indicator that a calcification represents a phlebolith . When shape or location does not allow differentiation of a phlebolith from a urinary calculus, the density of the of salesman, structure in question can be of aristotle virtue theory, value.
There is typically a measureable attenuation difference between a urinary calculus and a phlebolith. Of Salesman? In one investigation, it was reported that urinary calculi showed a mean attenuation of 305 HU, whereas phleboliths had a mean attenuation of 160 HU. No phlebolith in this study had a mean attenuation greater than 278 HU . A, 50-year-old woman. Coronal unenhanced CT image shows right-sided hydronephrosis from obstructing calculus at ureteropelvic junction. B, 47-year-old woman. Transverse unenhanced CT image shows stone at left ureterovesical junction. If an unenhanced CT is insufficient to delineate the difference between a phlebolith or a urinary calculus, a delayed contrast-enhanced CT may be used to differentiate the spanish day of, two, renal function permitting. A contrast agent column will develop within the ureter proximal to of salesman, the site of Essays, obstruction. If there is an incomplete obstruction, the the death of salesman, contrast agent column can be used to identify whether the boo maribyrnong, suspected calcification is of salesman, indeed an intraluminal calculus and to allow direct visualization of the course of the language Essays, ureters in of salesman cases where such visualization would otherwise be difficult . Possible secondary findings for all calculi include imaging signs of obstruction or infection.
Early or subtle obstruction may manifest as loss of the spanish the dead, normally hyperdense medullary pyramid on unenhanced CT . This sign reflects focal edema. The Death? Asymmetric renal enlargement may also be present on the affected side (Figs. 4A , 4B , 4C , and 4D ). Aristotle? Early renal enlargement may be more focal at the death the renal poles . Collecting system dilatation, which is not to be confused with a normal variant extrarenal pelvis or parapelvic cyst, may also be noted. Collecting system dilatation will obliterate renal sinus fat, whereas an extrarenal pelvis or a parapelvic cyst will coexistent with normal fat . Fig. 2 . 51-year-old man with groin pain and hematuria. Transverse unenhanced CT image shows Foley catheter placed into urethra containing urinary calculus. The Dead? Evaluating all possible locations of urinary calculus is important.
Hydronephrosis (69%), perinephric edema (65%), and periureteral edema (65%) are frequently seen in the setting of a ureteral calculus . Hydronephrosis, hydroureter, periureteral stranding, and ureterovesical junction edema have been reported to have strong positive predictive values for the presence of obstruction . Conversely, the absence of the death, hydronephrosis and hydroureter has also been reported as having a strong negative predictive value for obstruction . Subtle hydronephrosis and obstruction can be identified on a contrast-enhanced CT via comparatively delayed renal enhancement and aristotle virtue theory, excretion on the affected side. The Death Of Salesman? Perinephric or periureteral edema or stranding, manifesting as increased attenuation within the adjacent retroperitoneal fat, represents progression of edema to the adjacent extrarenal tissues and Essay Budget Cuts in Education; Good, lymphatics . Isolated hydroureter may be an early indicator of obstruction. Perinephric stranding is usually not seen in the death the first 2 hours following the onset of flank pain and can take 8 hours from clinical presentation with pain to reach a maximum extent . A contrast-enhanced CT examination may show a focal or generalized absence of Essay on Flat Rent During College, renal enhancement, which, in the death of salesman the appropriate clinical setting, could reflect pyelonephritis. Perinephric edema and stranding are nonspecific signs that may be seen in infection or even in cases of sterile obstruction. Social Commentary On Love In Pride? A focal fluid collection may reflect an the death of salesman, abscess or a ruptured calyx with urinoma. If a calculus is not identified but secondary signs are present, the on Flat During College, possibility of the death, a passed calculus or obstruction unrelated to on Love and Marriage and Prejudice by Austin, urolithiasis should be considered [11, 14].
Alternatively, in the appropriate clinical setting, such as that of an HIV-positive patient, a radiolucent calculus such as an indinavir calculus should also be a consideration. Rarely, concurrent bilateral obstructing calculi may result in anuria ( Fig. The Death? 5 ). A systematic approach is stressed to maintain relevant and clear communication to spanish day of, the clinician. The following subsections summarize the the death, suggested reporting points at Commentary on Love in Pride by Jane Austin our institution (Table 1). The number of calculi should be reported. Calculus burden can be a differentiating factor in a patient. s treatment . Multiple pyramidal calculi may indicate the the death, presence of medullary sponge kidney, a disease of unknown cause that results in dilatation of distal collecting tubules within medullary pyramids and has been found to be associated with an The Increase in English Learners, increased incidence of nephrolithiasis  (Figs. Of Salesman? 6A , 6B , and 6C ). The location and number of spanish, nonobstructing calculi should also be reported, because it has been reported that, in the death of salesman the absence of another identifiable cause, this may be a source of pain in some patients who present with suspected renal colic . This is aristotle, of increased importance in patients who repeatedly present without another cause for pain, because prolonged clinical and imaging evaluation can result in excess radiation exposure, morbidity, and cost. A, 40-year-old man.
Transverse unenhanced CT image reveals distal ureteral calculus just above ureterovesical junction with circumferential ureteral wall thickening ( arrows ), which is soft-tissue rim sign. B, 29-year-old man. Phlebolith ( arrowheads ) near left ureterovesical junction with adjacent soft-tissue . comet tail. ( arrows ) represents noncalcified vein. Report the largest dimension in the death of salesman both the axial and coronal planes to the nearest millimeter. Size should be assessed in magnified bone window images to allow increased accuracy  (Figs. 7A and 7B ). Aristotle Theory? In addition to transverse plane images, sagittal and coronal plane images should also be reviewed to accurately identify the largest single dimension and increase sensitivity in the detection of the death, smaller calculi . Though the transverse plane dimension has been found to be more closely associated with likelihood of spontaneous passage of a calculus, evaluation in the coronal plane can help with detection and anatomic localization .
Accurate reporting of the dead, calculus size directly affects patient treatment, because calculi up to 5 mm have a 68% probability of the death of salesman, passage, and calculi of 5. 10 mm have a 47% probability of passage . A, Unenhanced CT images show signs of obstruction, including collecting system dilatation ( A ), renal edema ( B ), renal enlargement ( C ), and perirenal fluid and stranding ( D ). B, Unenhanced CT images show signs of obstruction, including collecting system dilatation ( A ), renal edema ( B ), renal enlargement ( C ), and perirenal fluid and stranding ( D ). C, Unenhanced CT images show signs of obstruction, including collecting system dilatation ( A ), renal edema ( B ), renal enlargement ( C ), and perirenal fluid and stranding ( D ). Fig. 4D . Secondary signs of obstruction. D, Unenhanced CT images show signs of obstruction, including collecting system dilatation ( A ), renal edema ( B ), renal enlargement ( C ), and perirenal fluid and stranding ( D ). At our institution, it is Commentary on Love in Pride Jane, routine to report whether the calculi are located within the upper pole, mid kidney, or lower pole. In the case of a ureteral calculus, no universal standard exists for the description of the location along the ureter.
It is best to confer with the referring urologist for of salesman agreed-on landmarks. Beauty? In general, the more proximal the calculus within the ureter, the less likely it will spontaneously pass . Many researchers divide the ureter into the death of salesman, proximal and Cuts in Education;, distal segments, separated by their relation to the iliac vessels. Our suggested division is the the death, following: the proximal ureter begins at the ureteropelvic junction and transitions to the mid ureter at language Essays the level of superior margin of the sacrum. The mid ureter extends from the the death, superior margin of the sacrum to the lower margin of the sacrum, where it transitions to the distal ureter, which extends to the ureterovesical junction. Others may prefer reporting of the ureteral calculus in Social Commentary in Pride and Prejudice relation to external landmarks, such as the the death, umbilicus. Fig. 5 . 24-year-old woman with sudden anuria. Bilateral obstructing ureterovesical junction stones ( arrows ) were identified as cause of Learners, sudden anuria.
Imaging signs of obstruction or infection should be noted, because these may dictate more urgent or aggressive management. Secondary associated findings, as described in the CT section of this article, should be reported with detail, including laterality and severity. If secondary findings are focal, such as upper pole dilatation, then this more specific anatomic description should also be provided, because it may help localize the site of of salesman, obstruction or infection, if intervention is needed. The relationship of the kidney to surrounding organs should be reported in Budget in Education; the event that an intervention becomes necessary. The Death? The location of bowel, vessels, or the level of pleural reflections may change the The Increase in English language Essays, approach of or prevent percutaneous access for calculus removal or treatment. In addition, complex or variant anatomy should be noted. Of Salesman? Other details that should be reported include aberrant vasculature, adjacent bowel, the location of an Essay Budget in Education; Idea?, anomalous kidney, and the presence of distorted pelvicalyceal architecture or abnormal infundibular orientation. TABLE 1: Suggested CT Reporting Points for Urolithiasis. Nongenitourinary pathologic abnormalities may also be identified on unenhanced CT. Such findings may be the cause of the patient. s acute onset of the death of salesman, pain and can coexist with urolithiasis. Causes of The Increase in English Essays, pain that may be clinically confused with the flank pain of urolithiasis include diverticulitis or appendicitis .
Other important findings can also be evident on CT that may warrant further investigation and clinical management. The Death Of Salesman? One series of 1500 patients examined for suspected urolithiasis found several patients with imaging signs consistent with renal cell carcinoma, prostate malignancy, lymphoma, abdominal aortic aneurysm, and even chondrosarcoma . Overall, treatment depends on the patients. symptoms, hemodynamic status, the size and location of the calculus, and renal function. Treatment options depend on beauty boo maribyrnong several factors and range from observation to open surgery (Table 2). Immediate temporary diversion or drainage of urine before removing the calculus is required in situations of severe uncontrolled pain, sepsis, or renal failure, or if calculus removal equipment is not available. The Death? Drainage can be achieved by a ureteral stent or percutaneous nephrostomy tube.
A ureteral stent allows the ureter to passively dilate and can facilitate calculus passage without the need for manual extraction. A nephrostomy tube drains urine more directly and allows ureteral peristalsis to resume, which can facilitate calculus passage in certain situations. Percutaneous nephrostomy has been reported to reduce mortality from 40% to 8% when there is obstruction associated with gram-negative septicemia . Beauty Boo Maribyrnong? Either method of diversion can successfully decompress the urinary system until the patient is stable enough to of salesman, undergo definitive treatment. Observation is the most common noninvasive option, because most calculi pass spontaneously. Ideal candidates for beauty boo maribyrnong observation include patients with well-controlled pain, no evidence of superimposed infection or renal insufficiency, and the death, two functioning kidneys. The size of the calculus is important, because calculi smaller than 5 mm in maximal diameter have a high likelihood of aristotle virtue theory, passing spontaneously, whereas those approaching 1 cm or larger do not . Management consists of pain relief, hydration, and medical expulsive therapy. This last component involves the addition of the death, medication to facilitate the passage of ureteral calculi.
Calcium-channel blockers (e.g., nifedipine) and ??-blockers (e.g., tamsulosin) have shown a benefit in reducing the time for passage and boo maribyrnong, increasing the likelihood of of salesman, passage. Beauty? These medications are thought to the death, exert an expulsive effect on ureteral smooth muscle. To date, dissolution of on Flat Rent During, a calculus with oral medication can be performed only for those composed of uric acid. Uric acid is very soluble in alkaline urine and the death of salesman, can dissolve with small changes in urine pH. Essay Rent During? Common methods of of salesman, alkalinization include oral potassium citrate or sodium bicarbonate therapy [25, 26]. Although cystine calculi can dissolve in an alkaline environment, the pH level required for aristotle virtue theory dissolution cannot be achieved through oral medication. Calcium-based calculi cannot be dissolved with any available medication.
A, Kidney-ureter-bladder radiograph shows several calcific densities overlaying both kidneys, indicating bilateral nephrocalcinosis. B, Reformatted coronal image from unenhanced CT confirms presence of bilateral multifocal renal calculi, distributed along medullary pyramids. C, More posterior image from same examination shows 9-mm obstructing calculus within right ureter with mild hydroureter and adjacent ureteral mural thickening. Radiologist suggested, and subsequent evaluation confirmed, diagnosis of medullary sponge kidney. Extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) uses externally focused high-intensity acoustic pulses to the death, fragment a calculus in situ. Subsequent passage of calculus fragments may take days to weeks. Essay In Education;? Indications for ESWL include renal and proximal ureteral calculi that are smaller than 2 cm.
ESWL has a short recovery time and the death, relatively little morbidity compared with ureteroscopy and percutaneous nephrolithotomy, thus making it preferred in the treatment of on Flat Rent During College, renal calculi [27. 29]. Lower pole calculi can be treated with ESWL, although results are inferior because of the angle of the ureteropelvic junction. Dense calculi, such as calcium oxalate monohydrate or cystine calculi, do not break up well with ESWL. A, Soft-tissue window settings (width, 400 HU; level, 20 HU). B, Bone-window settings (width, 2000 HU; level, 400 HU). Apparent size of calculus varies with windowing technique used. At our institution, bone window is used in reporting size of calculi because of its sharper edge delineation. Relative contraindications to this procedure include infection, obstruction, distal ureteral calculi in of salesman female patients (because of Essay Rent During, unknown effects of ESWL on the ovary), morbid obesity, and the death, cystine calculi.
Absolute contraindications to ESWL include coagulopathy and pregnancy. A potential complication of ESWL is bleeding. Patients usually complain of severe pain, and imaging studies may reveal a subcapsular renal hematoma. Another complication is a condition known as steinstrasse, the The Increase in English language Learners Essays, German word for . street of stones. The Death Of Salesman? Steinstrasse refers to the accumulation of multiple stone fragments within the distal ureter, leading to beauty, partial or complete obstruction, and can occur in up to the death of salesman, 6% of patients [30, 31]. Rigid or semirigid ureteroscopes are used for calculi that are located in spanish the dead the ureter, usually in the mid or distal portion.
Flexible ureteroscopes allow access into all parts of the kidney, especially the the death, lower pole, which can otherwise be difficult to reach. Endoscopic lithotripsy through the ureteroscope is then performed by spanish day of the dead holmium laser or electrohydraulic lithotripsy fiber. The Death Of Salesman? After the calculus is successfully fragmented, either the pieces are allowed to pass spontaneously with the assistance of a ureteral stent or the pieces are manually extracted with a small basket. At our institution and many others, ureteroscopy is the most commonly used procedure to remove ureteral calculi and is also helpful for Commentary in Pride by Jane renal calculi that have failed ESWL . Contraindications include large calculi ( 2 cm), which are difficult to remove in one session because of scope and laser size limitations. In contrast to of salesman, ESWL, serious bleeding is less common with ureteroscopy, which can be performed in fully anticoagulated patients. Rent During College? Uncommon complications include ureteral perforation and the death of salesman, ureteral stricture formation. TABLE 2: Urolithiasis Treatment Options. A, Oblique sagittal unenhanced CT shows percutaneous nephrostomy tube placed for Commentary on Love and Prejudice Jane Austin treatment of obstructing proximal ureteral calculus.
B, Obstructing proximal right ureteral calculus and sepsis. The Death Of Salesman? Nephrostogram image was obtained after emergent placement of percutaneous nephrostomy tube. Percutaneous removal of renal calculi is indicated for a large calculus ( 2 cm), staghorn calculus, or calculus in an anomalous kidney or a calyceal diverticulum (Figs. 8A and 8B ). This option is not considered a first-line treatment in many cases because it has a higher complication rate than ESWL or ureteroscopy, approaching 8% in some series [33, 34]. This treatment option requires percutaneous access to the kidney, typically with a 30-French access sheath. Energy modalities to fragment the day of, calculus include ultrasonic, electrohydraulic, and holmium laser. Fragments are then either suctioned out or manually extracted.
Complications include bleeding, infection, and the death, perforation of Commentary on Love in Pride and Prejudice Jane Austin, surrounding organs, the last of which is fortunately rare. Because of advancements in minimally invasive technology, open surgery is uncommon today and is currently used as an option in less than 1% of cases. Although it is of salesman, still used for excision of Rent, complex staghorn calculi with infundibular stenosis or excessively large bladder calculi, open surgery is, in many cases, a last resort because of the relative high cost and high morbidity compared with other minimally invasive or percutaneous treatment options [35, 36]. Laparoscopic surgery is also rarely used and is usually considered in of salesman cases in which lithotripsy or ureteroscopic treatment is deemed unlikely to succeed . CME SAM What the Radiologist Needs to Know About Urolithiasis. This article is available for CME/SAM credit. This is a Web exclusive article.
What the Radiologist Needs to Know About Urolithiasis: Part 2. CT Findings, Reporting, and Treatment. Copyright 2013-2016, American Roentgen Ray Society, ARRS, All Rights Reserved.
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University Degree: European Union Law. Meet our team of inspirational teachers. Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents. What is the meaning of the term 'measure equivalent to a quantitative restriction' for the purposes of Article 28 EC? Dassonville were a French company who exported Scotch Whiskey and of salesman, they appealed that it would be very difficult for boo maribyrnong third party exporters to obtain such a certificate in the death of salesman, respect of goods already in free circulation in the third country.
The ECJ upheld the Dassonville appeal, stating that the law would impose a greater burden on those seeking to import goods into Belgium, and would therefore hinder free movement, and is consequently a MEQR as prohibited by the Treaty. What is on Flat During, important to note in this decision, is that the the death, ECJ will take a very broad view of measures which hinder the free flow of goods between Member States. Council Directive 2004/707 on transporting retired people (fictitious), adopted on 1 November 2000, requires all Member States: a. to Commentary on Love in Pride and Prejudice by Austin implement measures by March 2007 giving all retired EU workers beyond the age of 65 years the right to travel within the. Bill, a Spanish national was a teacher for the death 15 years in Spain before he moved to the UK. Social Commentary On Love And Marriage And Prejudice Austin? After working for 3 years as a secondary teacher in the UK, he decided to take life easier and the death, stopped his job. At 55, he has agreed with friends that he will take care of their gardens as long as they cook for him afterwards. He now wishes to spend the winter of every year in Spain where the warmer climate is better for his health. Bill goes to Essay on Arizona‚Äôs Cuts in Education; Good Idea? his Department of Transport to ask for his free flight, but his request is the death of salesman, refused. EU Law - age discrimination and market access case studies.
Firstly, the provision must be sufficiently clear, precise and unconditional. The case of C-148/78 Pubblico Ministero v. Essay Budget In Education;? Ratti decided that the implementation date of the directive has to have passed, while the case of C-271/91 Marshall v Southampton South West Health Authority stated that there was no horizontal direct effect of Directives, they can only be invoked against a state or public authority. Of Salesman? Here, the Directive is being used against B, an employer, and not a state or public authority, so it would appear the test is not satisfied, even though the The Increase language Learners Essays, implementation date has passed, and even if it is found that the provision is sufficiently clear. Free movement of capital and payments. Although the 1957 Treaty of Rome included free movement of capital among the the death of salesman, foundational provisions of the European Common Market, this freedom was expressed in more ambiguous terms than the Essay on Flat Rent College, other freedoms. 2 Who can rely on the free movement of capital? European Union citizens, legal persons and third-country nationals can all rely on the treaty provisions. 3 Direct effect: In contrast to the position prior to the amendments made by the Maastricht treaty noted above, the current prohibition has been held to be directly effective2. This is the the death, case whether we are considering prohibitions on restrictions on spanish capital movements between member states or between member states and third countries.
4 Free movement of Payments: Free movement of payments relates to transfers of foreign exchange as consideration for a transaction and not, as in the case of capital movements, to of salesman investment of the spanish day of, funds in question3. With reference to the works of the death two or more comparative lawyers and other sources, critically discuss the proposition that the comparative method drives integration rather than separation among legal systems: This has fused elements from all legal systems to ensure that there is clarity for the many business, who wish to conduct their affairs throughout different countries and continents, and to ensure that disputes are resolved more quickly, cheaper and effectively. On Arizona‚Äôs? The second aera that I shall look and it ii how the European project has managed to effectively create a legal stystem which has satistied common and civil law counties. The rise of the need for a comparative method for international trade: International trade can be a complicated area of law to because there are numerous levels of of salesman trade organizations and interactions. Critically discuss the Social Commentary on Love by, proposition that the Treaty of Lisbon has completed the evolution of the EU legal system. The European Charter of Human rights (the Charter) has also been given the status of EU primary law. In this essay, I will explore whether the change in the makeup of the EU legal system, most notably the issue of fundamental rights in the EU, has completed the evolution of a legal system or not. The Death? 2 The origins of fundamental rights in the European legal system: 2.1 In its first two decades the EUCJ was very reluctant to adjudicate on issues which were not economic in nature.
EU Freedom of Establishment. In this essay I will discuss the definition of beauty establishment and consider the relevant case-law which has shaped this fundamental freedom. paid to that person directly and in full The ECJ rejected the argument that the prostitutes were in subordination to the pimp and thus in an employment contract. This was rejected, as the Dutch government failed to produce enough evidence of such a relationship. The ECJ also mentioned the Morgenbesser2 case and the death, reinforced the settled law that a person does not need to undergo professional training to be providing a service with regards establishment. 2.4 The entry and residence of Self employed persons are the same rights as workers under Directive 2004/38.
Effects of the beauty, European Union on the death of salesman England and Wales Law. Directives require implementation into beauty boo maribyrnong national law by a state's legislative body before taking effect. Failure to properly implement a directive into national law by a Member State, the directive may give to direct effect provided the date of the of salesman, final implementation has passed. The European Union Court of The Increase Justice deems this as a compulsory measure in order to ensure the effectiveness of directives. The European Union legislation derives decision taken at the European Union level while implementation occurs at the national level. The democratic deficit is a concept created by the euro sceptics regarding the European Union and the alleged lack of democracy within its institutions.
We can be sure that the Treaty increases the the death, power of democratically elected European Parliament and introduces the beauty boo maribyrnong, Citizen's initiative which is the death, another democracy-increasing factor. The view is on Arizona‚Äôs Budget Cuts in Education;, that the Community institutional set-up is too bureaucratized and it lacks democratic legitimacy. The question of democratic legitimacy has become increasingly sensitive at every stage of the the death of salesman, European integration process. Treaties such as Maastricht, Amsterdam and Nice have triggered the inclusion of the principle of democratic legitimacy within the institutional system by reinforcing the powers of Parliament with regard to the appointment and aristotle theory, control of the Commission and successively extending the of salesman, scope of co decision procedure. Cassis de Dijon case analysis. Having considered the two essential legal principles in Community law from Cassis, it is important to recognize that the judgment of the Essay College, case in question may support the principle of supremacy in European Union law in that. Evidently, the Court of Justice (CJEU) found that the the death, Italian Republic have failed to fulfil the obligations under Article 34 of the TFEU, as it infringed the on Arizona‚Äôs in Education; Good, Community law set out in Article 34 TFEU that prohibits obstacles to the free movement of goods. The Commission added that such restriction significantly obstructs access to the Italian market. 3 Therefore the Court followed the commission's line of argument by stating that Article 34 aims to prohibit all rules enacted by Member States which are capable of hindering, directly or indirectly, actually or potentially, intra - Community trade 4 as laid out in the case of Procureur du Roi v Dassonville  also known as the 'Dassonville formula'. Eu Directives Problem Case.
Difficulties arise in situations such as the one faced by the death Gunilla, where Directives are improperly transposed or ignored by the implementing national authority. Colson v Land Nordrhen-Westfalen (1984)2 also said: that national courts are bound to interpret national law in light of the During College, wording and purpose of the directive. Difficulties arise in situations such as the one faced by Gunilla, where Directives are improperly transposed or ignored by the implementing national authority. A Directive which has not been properly transposed creates legal anomalies in the domestic legal system in question. Directives are used to harmonise national legislation, regulation and administrative provisions.
They require co-operation between the Community and the Member States. The democratic legitimacy of the Unions legislative process may have been enhanced by the growing influence of the European Parliament, but it remains deeply flawed by the role of the Commission and the functioning of the Council. do in order to represent that democratic legitimacy. Democratic legitimacy has been described by Abraham Lincoln as depending upon, ''government by the people, of the people, and for the people'' that is based on political participation, citizen representation and effective government.3 As argued by Daniel Gaus, the nature of legitimacy can be described as the ''worthiness of of salesman a political system'' and, shows in successfully operating legitimations or, in other words, in generally accepted justifications of a political order.4 There is a sense in Commentary and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice by, which the EU does enjoy sufficient legitimacy for the death of salesman the tasks it undertakes. In theory, the European Commission represents the EU interest, the European Parliament acts as the voice of the Essay on Flat Rent During College, people of the EU, and the Council represents the interests of national governments. The reality is quite different. Discuss. From these facts it seems clear that the Commission represents EU interest and not the interests of individual member states.
However, given that the 27 commissioners consist of one commissioner from each member state, the independence of of salesman individual commissioners must be seen in The Increase language Learners, relative terms. Chosen because of well-connected and established prior political careers in the death of salesman, their countries (with over two-thirds chosen from a party in on Arizona‚Äôs Budget Good Idea?, government at the time of appointment), they often act as links between the the death of salesman, Commission and the member states.3 The Court of Justice have stated that Commissioners were required to language ensure that the general interest of the European Union took precedence at all times over both national and the death of salesman, personal interests. 'The inauguration by the Court of Justice of the doctrines of direct effect and supremacy marked an beauty boo maribyrnong, important shift in the emphasis of European integration.' (M. Dougan, 2004) Explain the relationship between the principle of the death of salesman supremacy and Cuts in Education;, that of. With each stage, the the death, supremacy of boo maribyrnong EU law was enlarged and deepened. The Death Of Salesman? The doctrine of 'supremacy' applies to national law that 1) pre-dates the EU law 2) post-dates the aristotle virtue, EU law 3) and that of a constitutional nature. The Death Of Salesman? The doctrine of supremacy was first given credence in 1964 during the Costa v Enel case2, Court of Justice of the European Communities.
The Court clarified that the EEC Treaty had created its own legal system, which had become an integral part of the legal systems of the beauty boo maribyrnong, Member States and of salesman, which their courts were bound to apply. The Problem With The ECJs Approach To Free Movement Is Not Whether It Has Found The Ideal Analytical Techniques For Determining The Boundaries Of The Treaty Prohibitions, But Rather That Its Application Of The Proportionality Principle Undermines An. This was largely based on the reasoning that indistinctly applicable rules which relate to product composition and packaging create a dual burden for the importer, as the importer will have to comply with 2 sets of regulations. The court mitigated the effects of this widening, by spanish day of the dead allowing distinctly applicable rules to the death be justified by the Article 30 derogations, but also creating judicially created derogations known as mandatory requirements (discussed further on). With regards to selling arrangements, i.e. Language Essays? those rules concerning who sells the the death, product, when they sell the product and how they sell the product7, the ECJ in Keck8 carved a solid exclusion for provided they meet the two provisos universality neutrality. EU Protection of Fundamental Rights. Furthermore, it held that rights conferred on individuals by the EC legislation should be enforceable by Essay Budget Cuts in Education; Good Idea? those individuals in national courts. With growing awareness of fundamental rights, especially throughout the European Community, these rights undoubtedly began to of salesman play a crucial role and therefore their protection became inevitable. In the 1970 case of Handelsgesellschaft7, which portrayed the importance of fundamental rights, the German Verwaltungsgericht referred to The Increase in English language Learners Essays the ECJ the question of whether the import and export licensing system under the of salesman, common organisation of the grain market was valid. Parliamentary Supremacy as the dominate characteristic of political institutions. The theory of natural and divine law was long held to govern long before the Bill of Rights.
In many cases, the common law will control Acts of Parliament, and sometimes adjudge them to be utterly void: for when an in English Learners, Act of Parliament is against common right and the death of salesman, reason, or repugnant or impossible to Essay on Flat During College be performed, the of salesman, common law will control it, and adjudge such an Act to be Void.iii A proposition by A.V Dicey suggested that the concept of parliamentary sovereignty has two parts, both a positive and negative strand. The principle proposed by the positive strand, is that Parliament can make or unmake any law whatsoever. Critically evaluate the impact of the E.U. The Increase Language Essays? Directive on Copyright in the death of salesman, an Information Society, 2001/29/EC, on the problems posed for musical copyright owners by the development of the Internet. Does the Directive achieve, in your view, a workable and effec. It manages to promote some level of standardisation within the EU regarding copyright and related rights. This was a necessity for the successful enforcement of copyright owners' rights. Prior to Commentary and Prejudice by Jane standardisation, the of salesman, laws governing the Internet within the on Love in Pride and Prejudice Jane, EU were so fragmented that they could be circumvented by a user merely setting up a server in a country other than his own which had a lower standard of applicable laws and enforcement of those laws. The standardisation within the EU now means that all Member States have a degree of harmonisation and can enforce this Directive without dispute as to governing law (within the EU).
Institutional development perspective is a crucial point of the enlargement process not least because before accepting new members, significant institutional reforms must be accepted. The Death Of Salesman? The process of interaction and integration with direct neighbours depend the on Flat Rent, future success or failure of the EU. Hence, Ronald Dannreuther suggests: The impact of EU enlargement is also not limited to the accession of new members but involves the definition of new borders and creation of new neighbours. (Dannreuther, 2004: 2) Fraser Cameron claims (2004) The scenario presented involves an Irish national, Gerard, who had migrated to the UK unaware of a new legislation which posed an the death, obligation on him to register with the UK Border Agency upon arrival, because he was a non-UK national. Gerard appealed the d.
wrongly dealt with as it is the role of the European Union law to beauty govern such matters with the regulations laid down through various treaties. The problem must be dissected into fragments to consider each action taken by or against Gerard, the validity of these actions in accordance with EU law, the lawful procedure that Gerard should have experienced under terms of EU law and the death, which authorities were responsible for handling the case. Whether Gerard has remedies that allow him to enforce his rights must be also be revised. The least one can expect from a Court is beauty, that it be consistent and promote legal certainty. If the Court of Justice decides that directives only impose obligations on Member States and only after the period for their transposition has expired, liti. Thus, from this definition, it could be stated that Directives cannot in themselves automatically create substantive rights that citizens are then able to the death enforce and The Increase Essays, it is this initial premise, which we shall consider. In Van Duyn1, the of salesman, court observed that where an obligation has been imposed on a Member State to pursue a particular course of conduct, the useful effect of such an act would be weakened if individuals were prevented from relying on it before their national courts and if the latter were prevented form taking it into Social Commentary on Love in Pride by Austin consideration. . can utilise the direct actions, namely Art 230 (actions against EU institutions for exceeding powers), and Art 232 (actions against Community institutions for failure to act). Provided that the possibility of non-compliance has been notified, in the scenario given, the Commission can engage in of salesman, informal discussion with the United Kingdom. This is known as the informal stage or mediation. The Commission will also identify the severity of the breach and will prescribe a time limit within which the UK must comply with the relevant obligation under the Treaty, namely its obligation under Art 39(1) The comitology procedures focus too much on institutional balance, and not enough on deliberation.
Discuss. Over the years, many criticised the Comitology Decision, especially whether the Decision infringed upon the (Community) institutional balance of powers and aristotle theory, Article 145, third indent10. As a result, new Comitology Decisions were introduced. Before examining whether the comitology procedures focus too much on institutional balance and not enough on deliberation, it is important to outline the different comitology procedures; advisory, management, regulatory and regulatory with scrutiny. The advisory procedure is the one which the Commission has the greatest freedom. The Commission need only to take utmost account of the opinion delivered by the committee11 but remains free to disregard it12. In this case the Court of the death Justice discussed how community law is a unique system that is able to override any conflicting legislation. By 1964 where there were situations of conflict, the Court of Justice ruled that community law always prevails no matter what the situation was.
A state that is in violation of community law may be challenged before its own national courts. The principles of direct effect and supremacy come into the dead play. A complainant may choose to bring proceedings at national level in the death of salesman, so far as that may offer legal protection unavailable at EC level: this will. Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and aristotle, address it directly - for example by using key words from the title. How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.
Do they use key words from the title or question? Do they answer the question directly? Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion? In conclusion, the decentralisation of EU competition law will inevitably lead to a risk of of salesman inconsistent application and a decline in central guidance from the Commission as they will have very little influence over the process in national courts. These factors will affect undertakings self assessment due to uncertainty over how Article 81 (3) will be applied and spanish day of, lack of guidance.
However, any disputes over the legality of agreements will be dealt with quickly and efficiently, which should promote confidence and certainty in undertakings. In Conclusion it can be seen that the the death, Commission has a very difficult task to perform when it comes to Competition law. Essay On Arizona‚Äôs Budget Good Idea?? On one hand it does not want to of salesman stifle companies from trying to invest and The Increase in English language, grow with the the death, market it is within, but does not want to allow companies to become so powerful that there is no competition. Aristotle Virtue Theory? The main feeling I have is that in the days of huge multinational comes that don#039;t care about final end users but only that of shareholders. People will want to look at see that there freely elected representative are doing as much as possible to of salesman curtail these companies from having to much influence in there daily life#039;s. In the years to come if people feel that they rights are not being expressed we will find ourselves in a world full of festering hate and greed. In conclusion the freedoms of service and establishment are economic notions they link back to the very reason the EU was first formed. They are very important as they give rights to self employed and companies, with little reference to small businesses. Competitiveness amongst the movement of workers and establishment prevents the service doctrine from growing. EU citizens would benefit greatly from growth in Cuts Good, the services sector.
They would be able to choose the best services for the death of salesman themselves with the best price on the entire market. This will help to maintain a borderless Europe. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Get Revising are all trading names of the dead The Student Room Group Ltd. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: This document has been marked by one of our great teachers.
You can read the the death, full teachers notes when you download the document. This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on beauty boo maribyrnong the document page. This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student document reviewing squad. Read the the death, full review under the Commentary on Love and Prejudice Austin, document preview on this page.
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Essay 4-Effects of Domestic Violence. Effects of Domestic Violence. In order to understand the effects of domestic violence, it is important to know exactly what domestic violence is. Domestic violence is anything that involves physical harm, sexual assault, or fear of physical harm (ďWhat is Domestic Violence?Ē 1). The Death. In order to help individuals who are suffering from domestic violence, it is essential to have to have a better understanding on what causes domestic violence and Essay on Flat During, how it affects the abused, abuser, and children of the the death of salesman abused physically and mentally. Studies have shown that the main cause of spanish, domestic violence is the death of salesman actually a learned behavior rather than genetics. Most men that are abusive have come from a household where they have seen their parent, typically mothers, being abused; therefore, they have grown up to view women as being unworthy of respect (ďLearned and The Increase language Learners Essays, ReinforcedĒ 1). Most women or men who are abused tend to overlook, excuse, or deny domestic violence. This is especially the case when there is mostly emotional or psychological abuse rather than physical abuse. Of Salesman. However, psychological abuse can be more devastating than physical abuse in women, men, or children, because it is typically over looked. Although this form of abuse mainly targets a personís self-esteem and independence, it is usually followed by Social Commentary on Love and Marriage in Pride by Austin, a harmful threat to the victim, which qualifies this as domestic violence.
Some people may also experience sexual abuse, which is the death of salesman just as bad as or even worse than physical abuse. ďAccording to the National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, between one-third and one-half of all battered women are raped by their partners at and Prejudice by Austin least once during their relationshipĒ (ďPhysical Violence is justÖĒ). Research shows that women whose partners physically and sexually abuse them are at a greater risk of being injured or killed (ďPhysical violence is just #8230;Ē2). This tends to lead to depression which is one of many serious long term effects of the death, domestic violence. Researchers have reported that sixty percent of battered women report depression (ďLong term effectsÖĒ). ď In addition, battered women are at greater risk for suicide attempts, with 25% of suicide attempts by Caucasian women and on Flat During College, 50% of the death of salesman, suicide attempts by virtue theory, African American womenÖĒ(ďLong term effectsÖĒ). Finally, the silent sufferers are the children. ďSeeing violence between trusted adults has a greater effect on a childís development than television and movies ever couldĒ (Ricci). Children are mostly the the death of salesman ones that get the beauty back lash of the death of salesman, domestic violence. They too are hurt physically and mentally by domestic violence. Data shows that in many cases children from domestic violent homes are more likely to be victims of child abuse themselves, and those who may not get physically beaten suffer from the same psychological trauma as if they had been beaten (Estrada). Children may have a wide range of reactions from witnessing abuse. Some of the typical reactions are as follows: being withdrawn, feeling helpless, expressing super hero behavior, which may make the child appear to be more responsible and Essay in Education; Good Idea?, better organized, and acting as the of salesman class clown, which allows the child to get the attention that they long for (Estrada).
The physical effect of on Love and Marriage in Pride Jane, domestic violence is pretty clear, but it is typically the of salesman underlying effect of emotional abuse that goes unnoticed and over looked. This can be a serious problem if it goes untreated. There are different ways to get help for loved ones and friends who are victims of domestic violence. Remember domestic violence is not a disease but a societal problem which, if understood, can be treated. Estrada, Fernando. ďThe Psychological Effects of Domestic Violence in Children.Ē YumaSun. 12 June 2009. Aristotle. 8 Nov. 2009. ďLearned and Reinforced.Ē Turning Point . Web. 9 Nov. 2009. ďLong term effects of Domestic Violence.Ē Domestic Violence . Office of Clark County prosecuting Attorney 1998-2006.
Web. ďLong term effects of Domestic Violence.Ē www.aardvarc.org. 10 Nov.2009. Web. Ricci, Lawrence R. ďThe Effects on Children .Ē Clinical Reference Systems 2008.3(2008):NA. Gale Cengage Learning. The Death Of Salesman. Greenville Technical College Lib. Day Of. Greenville, SC. 10 Nov. 2009. Great essay! i never really thought about domestic violence being verbally and emotionally abusive also. Of Salesman. i have come to notice from this essay that in relationships that are abusive, people deny the fact that they are being abused.
I really liked your essay. I thought it was well developed and organized great! I liked the different effects that you put down because some of beauty, them are not obvious outcomes. Overall it was very interesting and the death, thought out. I am so glad you chose this topic because this is aristotle virtue a serious issue that takes place too often. The Death. There are so many people that need to read this essay and think about how they can treat others or why they need help. You did an excellent job at Social Commentary and Marriage providing good information ,and you did a great job at of salesman organizing your facts and ideas. I really enjoyed reading you essay.
Great job Jasymin! Excellent essay. I liked it because it shows how domestic violence can harm the entire society. Commentary And Marriage In Pride By Jane. Also identifies the different kinds of abuse people shows to hurt other people and we are not aware of. In overall yo did a really good job. This is an excellent essay. Whenever the term #8220;domestic violence#8221; is heard, the first thing that comes to the death mind is assault and battery. No one usually thinks of words being violent. Social And Marriage And Prejudice Jane Austin. To the human eye, actions are usually perceived as being more violent that words. This essay is very informative and can be useful or inspiring to someone else in this situation to the death of salesman overcome their bad situation with a significant other. I thought this was an informative essay.
Domestic violence is a topic often not discussed out loud. I like that this essay was on a different topic. Good job! This essay was well thought out and very organized. Essay On Flat College. I like how you pointed out the death, that most people who have been abused tend to deny it. Great job! This essay was organized extremely well.
I like how she went through how it effects each and every person who#8217;s involved. Her sources were used well and were very informative. I#8217;m so happy you took the time to write about Budget this topic because not many people know how damaging it really is. Good job!! Geat essay topic. this is an big issue in the american society as well and usually most people just sweap it under the rug but now it is starting to be noticed and handled. I#8217;m glad that you told the effects of being abused becasue it is rising issue and you letting everyone know that its not just an physical issue its emotional as well. Love the topic and it was very informative, and of salesman, well written.
Awesome Job! This essay is virtue clearly thought out and very organized. Of Salesman. I#8217;ve leaned so much by reading your view points on domestic violence. It is good information on Essay Cuts in Education; Good, domesstic violence. Not only here but also in the death India, there are many kids being abused by people they may know. This is a great essay! So many people do not realize that domestic violence is going on every day.
This essay is very beneficial to those who have been abused and to Essay on Flat Rent those who have never been. You have opened my eyes on how domestic violence can effect the community, not just the home. Of Salesman. This essay was well structured and greatly organized! #128578; This essay was good because i can relate to what they were talking about. I was a victim of abuse in a past relationship. and didnt really know the meaning as to The Increase in English why he was doing it. This is a problem that is going on all the of salesman time and more women are suffering from it. i understand where they are coming from because i went threw it and spanish the dead, i was a witness to it happening to some else. The Death. so this essay was good. Aristotle. GOOD JOB. Of Salesman. This essay is well written and developed. Lots of good information and was structured well. Like the examples used and the effects of domestic abuse named. I also like the other examples of The Increase language Learners, abuse besides physcial. Great essay.
I liked how you showed that domestic violence doesn#8217;t only the death of salesman, effect the people involved in it but how it can effect an entire society of people. I also liked how you incorporated percentages and statistics into your essay it made it sound really professional. Essay On Arizona‚Äôs Cuts In Education; Idea?. This was a very well thought out of salesman, topic, you made some very good points about dimestic violence that some people probably have never really thought about. i really liked how u put abused men in there also many people dont even think mean are ever abused cause you never hear anyone talk about it. I also really liked the way u said that the violence dont just effect the people abused but the whole family and even the society. All together this essay was very well put together and you used great topic sentences to get the readers attention. I think it#8217;s always good to Commentary on Love in Pride and Prejudice Jane bring up topics like this one.
A lot of times we forget the #8220;old issues#8221; because of all the new ones but we still need to realize that the old ones don#8217;t go away.
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Death of a Salesman
chapter 2 of thesis Resources for the celebration and enhancement of love, intimacy, ecstasy, and the death of salesman partnership. Commitment in Polyamorous Relationships. Monogamy, marriage and commitment. Rent During? Our culture assumes a connection between them. Is it possible to have marriage and commitment without monogamy? What would that look like? The focus of the the death study will be on people in sexually open committed relationships (i.e., they have open, honest, sexual, loving relationships with others in addition to their spouse or other committed partner).
Since there is a lack of scholarly work on multiple partner relationships (Sheff, 2005), this literature review includes articles pertaining to other forms of nonmonogamy (such as swinging) as well. Note that the difference between polyamory and swinging is that in polyamory there is a focus on love and the emotional relationship with other lovers, whereas swinging is often recreational sex, with an explicit intention to avoid an aristotle virtue theory emotional connection. The Death? The definition of swinging used by Jenks (1998), is married couples exchanging partners solely for sexual purposes (p. 507). This chapter starts with a look at the way monogamy is aristotle, linked to commitment in books on marriage, in order to give a background on prevailing notions about commitment. The rest of the death, this chapter looks at alternatives to monogamy, starting with academic studies, continuing with books, both fiction and nonfiction, and finishes with a section on relatively recent articles on polyamory and day of nonmonogamy. There have been many reasons given in the literature for monogamy.
Some, like Masters and Johnson (1974), recognized that there may be some circumstances and reasons for disregarding it, but they still presented a case for why monogamy is the basis for commitment. They expressed a concern that extramarital sex is a cure that is worse than the problem it is the death of salesman, supposed to Social by Austin, resolve, that it weakens the commitment that is created by the pleasure bond of the sexual act. Pearsall (1994) also emphasized the commitment that is part of monogamy, and discussed the the death healing that comes from a loving, committed, sexual relationship. He suggested that Sexual pleasure may be programmed into us as a signal to our brain that we are on the right track in the dead, preventing illness and staying well by making contact with another person (p. 11). He expressed a concern that extramarital sexual relationships reduce the bonding and intimate connection that are necessary for sexual healing. While Pearsall (1994) discussed physical healing, Hendrix (1990) proposed marriage as the arena for healing our childhood wounds. He stated that we choose as our partner a person who gives us the opportunity to work through the pain that we suffered as children, the person that we need to help us grow.
Hendrix (1993) also proposed monogamous marriage as a spiritual path, and stated a belief that a committed relationship requires monogamy. Others have also stressed the spiritual aspect of monogamous marriage. Hal and Sidra Stone, who advocated monogamy (Stone Stone, 1993), included a chapter on spirituality in their book on partnering (Stone Stone, 1990). Welwood (1990) described marriage as an alchemical vessel in which two people's natures are steadily refined through the heat of their loving commitment to stand by each other (p. 185) This requires monogamy as a container; having other lovers or complaining to friends when things are hard makes the container too leaky. Moschetta and Moschetta (1998) discovered that there is a spiritual element present in every strong and vibrant marriage (p.
15). They claimed that When you have the the death marriage spirit you are monogamous by choice (p. Spanish Day Of The Dead? 256). They viewed marriage as a sacred place. The Death Of Salesman? Schnarch (1994) encouraged the integration of sexuality and on Flat Rent spirituality. He encouraged a voluntary choice of monogamy, made as a commitment to the death, oneself, to promote growth and differentiation (Schnarch, 1991, 1998). Not everyone agrees with the concept that monogamy is superior to nonmonogamy, and that commitment is The Increase language Learners, impossible without monogamy. Rubin (2001) observed that The late 1960s and early 1970s was a period of intense reexamination of interpersonal relationships, marriage and family life (p.
711). He wrote a fairly thorough review of the literature on swingers, group marriages, and the death of salesman communes (and incidentally, on open marriage), noting that in the 1990s one had to go to the popular press to The Increase language Essays, find information on swinging. Another review of the literature on swinging was done by Jenks (1998). He concluded that Although many people in the death, our society disapprove of this behavior and spanish the dead believe that swingers are very unhappy and of salesman have unsatisfactory marriages there is no evidence for such a claim (p. 591). Of interest to the researchers two to Essay on Flat During, three decades and more ago was whether there was a psychological difference between the people who were monogamous and the death of salesman those who were not. Watson (1981, as quoted by Rubin, 1982) studied 38 people in sexually open marriages and found no significant difference from the standardization norms of the California Psychological Inventory. Buunk (1980, as quoted by spanish day of, Rubin, 1982) found no significant differences from the norm in 50 couples with sexually open marriages in the Netherlands. Other researchers (Gilmartin, 1972; Paulson and the death of salesman Paulson, 1971; and Cole and Spanier, 1974, all as quoted by Rubin, 1982) concluded that there was no evidence that swinging is harmful to marital or family stability (p. 102). On Arizona‚Äôs Budget In Education;? (Swinging is included in this review of literature since there are more studies of it than of sexually open marriages). Of Salesman? Rubin's own study of 130 sexually open respondents and Social Commentary and Marriage in Pride and Prejudice by Jane Austin 130 who did not have an agreement to be sexually open, using the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, concluded that Of the couples who were living together, those in the death, sexually open marriages were as well adjusted as those in Social Commentary and Prejudice Jane Austin, sexually exclusive marriages.
Of the couples who had 'split up,' those who had been in sexually open marriages were no more unhappy than those who had been in sexually exclusive marriages (p. 107). Murstein, Case and the death of salesman Gunn (1985) found that swingers vary from beauty societal norms in some ways and have an unusually high interest in sex, but were reasonably adequately functioning individuals. The Death Of Salesman? Kurdek and Schmitt (1985/86) studied gay couples and compared those that were sexually exclusive and those that were not. They found no evidence that psychological adjustment is related to type of coupling (p.
95). Rubin and Adams (1986) found no statistically significant difference in stability between sexually open and sexually closed couples. Others examined particular situations. Virtue Theory? Ramey (1975) studied 380 individuals involved in what he termed intimate friendships, friendships which included sexual intimacy, and described the types of relationships they had. He concluded that at least for these few respondents, if their self reports are to of salesman, be believed, behavior that combines the positive aspects of friendship with sexual activity that might otherwise be covert, non-consensual adultery is beauty boo maribyrnong, seen by them as more honest, more rewarding, and a distinct improvement over the way they previously lived their lives. He cautions, however, that It remains to be shown in any definitive way that this life style actually is an improvement over their previous life style (p. Of Salesman? 529). Knapp (1976), in her report of her study of 17 sexually open marriages, noted that there had been little empirical research on sexually non-monogamous marriage, and much of that had been on group or multilateral marriage. She acknowledged her study was not rigorously scientific, but expressed hope that there would be additional research on the topic of non-traditional marriage styles. Some researchers wrote in ways that implied some nonmonogamous relationships might require a greater degree of language, psychological development than monogamous ones. Ryals and the death Foster (1976) explained Jane Loevinger's theory of ego development (Loevinger, 1966, quoted in Ryals and Essay Foster), focusing in particular on the stages of conformist, conscientious, and autonomous.
Drawing on O'Neill and the death of salesman O'Neill (1972), they hypothesized that couples practicing open marriage would need to be at the autonomous stage, committed to each other's growth, and spanish day of the dead respecting each other's autonomy. They stated that people at the conformist stage would not likely have the cognitive complexity to understand the of salesman notion of autonomy in theory, marriage, and people at the conscientious stage would be likely to the death of salesman, try to intervene, to help, to protect, which, regardless of altruistic underpinnings, may create the status differential which interferes with peer like equal status interdependence (p. 301). Peabody (1982) also referred to language, Loevinger's ego development theory. She noted the intensifying pressure on marriage which has resulted in an increasing rate of the death of salesman, divorce. She explained swinging, open marriage and group marriage, and aristotle virtue stated that the traditional monogamous marriage can no longer provide adequately for the intimacy needs of some individuals (p. The Death? 430). She then suggested that monogamous marriage and the three alternative life styles could be viewed on a continuum of on Love Jane, increasing complexity, with the individuals in a successful sexually open marriage needing to be at a more autonomous level of ego development.
There were some articles on the counseling implications of these alternative life styles. In addition to Peabody (1982), Ziskin and Ziskin (1975) explained the of salesman types of issues that might come up in counseling with couples who have an agreement that explicitly permits one or both spouses to Social Commentary on Love in Pride by Austin, have sexual relations with others. Constantine, Constantine and Edelman (1972) stressed both the need for counselors working with clients in open marriages or multilateral (group) marriages to avoid pathologizing their clients' choice as well as the opportunity to help tailor the family structure to the people rather than to the death of salesman, continue to help individuals fit a single structural option (p. 272). Ramey (1972) presented a model of different types of spanish the dead, nonmonogamous relationships. The Death Of Salesman? He explained that there are more strains on on Arizona‚Äôs Budget Cuts in Education; Idea? current marriages, since much more is expected from marriage than previously. In addition, as women became peers of men, there was a greater possibility for the death, the alternatives to marriage to become more widespread. He classified relationships in Essays, what he termed an the death increasing order of complexity of interaction. Biblarz and Biblarz (1980) criticized the studies of swinging which had been done in aristotle theory, the years preceding their article. They stated that the of salesman researchers were on the side of the swingers, either openly or by default, since the researchers did not believe that, as scientists, they could make ethical judgments of the behavior.
Biblarz and Biblarz raised the question of whether marital improvements reported by swingers were the beauty result of a low starting point, and raised the possibility of the death, self-deception. They suggested that more attention should be paid to the mental, emotional, and social components of sexuality, and to the effect of swinging on the person's self-worth. During the late 1960s and early 1970s there were also a number of books published on the subject of nonmonogamy and alternative relationships. Some novels, like Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land (1967) and Rimmer's The Harrad Experiment (1967) and Proposition 31 (1968) were very influential on the young people (including this author) who went on to try nonmonogamous life styles (Ramey, 1972). In a book that seemed geared at Essay Budget Cuts Idea?, titillating the general public, the the death of salesman Lobells (1975) described how to have a sexually free marriage. There were more serious books as well. The O'Neills' Open Marriage (1972) was a best seller. While it was primarily about general guidelines for relationships which encourage growth for each individual, good communication, and flexible roles, it touched briefly on sexual openness. Beauty? This became the focus of public interest. The O'Neills have expressed regret that the core of the book was ignored, and that open marriage came to mean sexually open marriage (Wachowiak and Leopard, 1977). In a later book, Nena O'Neill (1978) discussed sexual fidelity in the death of salesman, a way which did not encourage nonmonogamy.
Ellis (1972) showed how to Essay on Arizona‚Äôs in Education; Good Idea?, apply rational emotive therapy to extramarital relationships. The Francoeurs (1976) analyzed hot sex as a depersonalized, genital centered view of sex which is based on an inequality between partners, whereas cool sex is more egalitarian and allows people the freedom to do more exploration. The Ziskins (1973) described different types of extramarital sex agreements, gave some case histories, and wrote some general comments on reasons and realities. Libby and Whitehurst (1977) brought together 24 articles from a variety of sources which took a serious look at nonmonogamous relationships from the perspective of sociologists, therapists, historians, sex educators, psychologists, psychiatrists, and more. Mazur (1973) described the varieties of sexual life styles and different types of intimacy, suggesting ways of handling intimacy and the death sensuality in our relationships.
Rogers (1972) in his book about what works and Social Commentary on Love and Marriage and Prejudice Jane does not work in marriage, described a couple who, by being open and honest with each other, found they could be open to being sexual with others in a way that was positive for of salesman, their marriage. The 1990s brought a new series of books. Nearing (1992) discussed polyfidelity (closed group marriage). Anapol (1997) described various forms of polyamory (which she noted comes from the roots meaning many loves) and how to aristotle, make it work. Easton and Liszt (1997) came from the viewpoint that sex is nice and pleasure is good for you (p. 4) and discussed how to the death of salesman, act accordingly in an ethical manner.
West (1996) used the word polyfidelity to express multiple lover relationships openly enjoyed in candor and good faith (p. 73), and explained ways to do it. Kilbride (1994) suggested that plural marriage could provide better opportunities for children by giving them access to beauty, multiple parents. Francoeur, Cornog and Perper (1999) compiled a group of articles and stories connecting spirituality and of salesman sexuality and suggesting alternatives to aristotle theory, strict monogamy. More books have been introduced in the 2000s. Life (2004) suggested that polyamory can be a path that helps us realize our spiritual truth.
Matik (2002) wrote about alternative relationships from the perspective of her experience, and noted that having open relationships means re-defining and re-building a relationship based on your needs and your values. [It's] a political act (p. 4). Ravenscroft (2004) explained that his book was intended to be a handbook for of salesman, newly polyamorous people, answering as many of their questions as possible. There are other books which touched briefly on the concept of aristotle virtue theory, nonmonogamy within discussions of ethics. Fortune (1998) recommended monogamy, but noted that the decision to be monogamous or not needed to be decided by the partners in the death, each relationship. Heyward (1989) and Ellison (1996), working towards a liberation theology, emphasized the importance of aristotle virtue theory, listening to of salesman, our bodies and making our own decisions about day of, our sexuality. They stated that when people are not in touch with their feelings and able to make their own choices about their bodies, they are less able to the death of salesman, relate to others out of strength and personal integrity.
When people are not in touch with their own needs and desires, they cannot support the needs and desires of others, and on Love and Marriage in Pride by therefore cannot act effectively to break the bonds of oppression for themselves or others. Many of the the death recent articles on polyamory or other nonmonogamy have bisexual/lesbian/gay issues. The Journal of Lesbian Studies (Munson and Social Commentary on Love and Marriage by Jane Stelboum, 1999) and the Journal of the death of salesman, Bisexuality (Anderlini-D'Onofrio, 2004) each published a double issue on polyamory and related issues that was simultaneously issued as a book. Loulan (1999) defended polyamory as a valid choice for lesbians, in spite of members of the lesbian community seeing polyamory as an affront to the sacrosanct union of two women struggling against the tides of the evil world (p. 37).
Halpern (1999) noted that fears about virtue, polyamory can be internalized in a way that is similar to homophobia and the death of salesman that the Rent assumption that more than one sexual bond will break up the primary relationship is of salesman, likely to Social Commentary on Love and Prejudice Jane, create that reality. She addressed the concern that bisexual women would never be happy with just a woman partner. Labriola (1999) described various models of open relationships and gave examples. She concluded with questions to ask to help people choose the relationship model that works for them. The Death Of Salesman? LaSala (2004) studied the relationship quality in strictly monogamous gay male couples compared with openly nonmonogamous couples, and found no difference on the Dyadic Adjustment Scale.
However, nominally monogamous couples who engaged in extrarelationship sex were less adjusted and satisfied. Pallotta-Chiarolli and Lubowitz (2003) studied women in monogamous, open, and polyamorous relationships with bisexual men, and The Increase Learners Essays how it affected their sense of being in a community or being on the death of salesman the outside of community. Kassoff (1988) discussed nonmonogamy in the lesbian community. She described different types, and clinical implications for therapists. Rust (1996) studied monogamy and nonmonogamy among bisexuals. She noted that some people find that no one person can fill all their needs. She warned against in English language pathologizing clients who choose nonmonogamy, and the death of salesman commented that bisexuals often need special support regardless of the relational forms they choose because of the lack of spanish day of the dead, support they receive elsewhere. Charles (2002) also addressed therapy. She noted that monogamy may impede self-awareness in some people, by preventing them from testing their idealized sense of self in other relationships.
It may make growth more difficult, or force people into a choice between self and relationship. Ford and Hendrick (2003) included open marriage in their study about the implications of therapists' sexual values on their work with clients. Davidson (2002) provided an outline of a talk about the death, working with polyamorous clients. This included notes on virtue theory how therapists can prepare to work with people who are exploring polyamory, basic understanding of of salesman, polyamory, and key issues to watch for. Jackson and Scott (2004) stated that nonmonogamy was central to the politics of feminism in the 1970s, but there has been a retreat from this position from the 1980s onward. They questioned the in English language Learners Essays more recent feminist assumption that, in heterosexual relations, women are damaged by nonmonogamy. The issue of gay marriage has raised the possibility of the marriage of more than two people, with some gay rights opponents warning that same-sex marriage leads a parade of horribles such as polygamy (Emens, 2004, p. 279). The Death Of Salesman? This is the context in which Emens (2004) and Strassberg (2003) have chosen to examine polyamory, marriage and the law. Strassberg (2003) examined polyfidelity (closed group marriage) in on Arizona‚Äôs Good, the light of the death, Hegel's analysis of the function performed by romantic love and marriage in supporting the modern liberal state.
She concluded that polyamory may be more of a Pandora's Box than many realize (p. 563). Emens (2004) described some reasons that monogamous people might find polyamory threatening, and and Marriage by Jane suggested some ways in which laws might be rewritten to avoid privileging monogamy. The only published survey of people who identify as polyamorous that this author is aware of was published in a nonacademic magazine (Weber, 2002; Pallotta-Chiarolli, 2002). Weber estimated that half a million Americans are polyamorous (even if they have not heard the word). The Death Of Salesman? The more than 1,000 people who responded to the survey were more highly educated than the general population, and had a higher household income. Aristotle? Pallotta-Chiarolli reported that a large majority of the respondents did not have children. The Death? Another survey was being done at the beginning of 2005 at www.polystudy.com for on Flat During College, a dissertation, but the the death of salesman site is no longer active.
Sheff (2004) did an spanish day of the dead ethnographic study for her dissertation. Wolfe (2003) studied jealousy and compersion in the polyamorous community. She notes that the term compersion was coined by the Kerista community, which used it as the opposite of jealousy, or taking pleasure at seeing one's partner enjoying him or herself with another lover. (Kerista was a commune that existed in San Francisco from the death of salesman 1971 to 1991. For information on Kerista, see http://www.kerista.com). Sheff (2005) found that polyamorous women expand their family, cultural, gender and sexual roles. The women she interviewed felt both more empowered and aristotle virtue theory more disempowered in their relationships. They felt empowered by their greater freedom to make their own sexual choices, create new roles for themselves and the death of salesman express themselves sexually, and disempowered by feelings of insecurity with respect to their partner's other relationships, fear of censure, and social stigma because of their deviance. Barker (2005) outlined ways in which polyamory might challenge key elements of the dominant construction of sexuality and described how some members of polyamorous communities construct their identities in relation to more dominant cultural constructions and language explored the implications that being polyamorous has for their own sense of self (p. 76). As can be seen by this fairly thorough review of the literature on polyamory and nonmonogamy in general, it contains little or nothing on commitment, especially not about the issue of how couples maintain their commitment.
Therefore this study of commitment in polyamorous relationships is addressing an area which has not yet been researched and published.