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Related Essays on A Passage To India. FEMA: Of Planning Essay! 13185 words - 53 pages. Positive Discrimination in India: A Political Analysis Partha S Ghosh Abstract In a plural society such as India the state generally faces demands from various caste, tribal religious and A Brief Biography Freud gender groups for social justice. Amongst such groups, the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs STs), are treated as deserving cases for historical reasons and on this, therefore, a national consensus has emerged. There is no agreement among the political classes as far as the other categories are concerned. Yet as the demands on their behalf for of Planning, inclusion in the affirmative action (positive discr. 15858 words - 64 pages. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION Eco-tourism is about conserving resources, valuing the what basic associates herbert mead local culture and contributing to the local economy. It focuses on local traditions, wilderness conservation, volunteering, personal growth and FEMA: discovering constructive ways to experience our fragile planet.
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ITC ------------------------------------------------- The ITC Profile | ITC is one of Levels Essay, India's foremost private sector companies with a market capitalisation of over US $ 33 billion and a turnover of US $ 7 billion. ITC is sandburg rated among the World's Best Big Companies, Asia's 'Fab 50' and the World's Most Reputable Companies by Forbes magazine, among India's Most Respected Companies by BusinessWorld and FEMA: Levels among India's Most Valuable Companies by Business Today. Carl Sandburg Poems! ITC ranks among India's `10 Most Valuable (Company) Brands', in a study conducted by Brand Finance and published by the Economic Times. 6078 words - 25 pages. IRON AND STEEL INDUSTRY IN INDIA Corporate Catalyst India A report on Indian Iron and Steel Industry OVERVIEW 1.1 Background The Indian iron and steel industry is nearly a century old, with Tata Iron Steel Co (Tata Steel) as the first integrated steel plant to be set up in 1907. It was the first core sector to be completely freed from the licensing regime (in 1990-91) and the pricing and distribution controls. The steel industry is expanding worldwide.
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Indian Society and Ways of Living Organization of Social Life in India Description India offers astounding variety in virtually every aspect of social life. Diversities of ethnic, linguistic, regional, economic, religious, class, and caste groups crosscut Indian society, which is poem themes also permeated with immense urban-rural differences and gender distinctions. Differences between north India and south India are particularly significant, especially in systems of kinship and marriage. Indian society is multifaceted to an extent perhaps unknown in any other of the world?s great civilizations?it is. 5663 words - 23 pages. ? Table of Contents 1. Introduction 3 1.1 Global Scenario of Steel Industry: 3 1.2 Indian Steel Industry: 4 1.2.1 Steel industry reforms ? 7 1.2.2 The present scenario of the FEMA: Levels Essay industry 8 1.2.3 Five Trends in Indian Steel Industry: 9 1.2.4 Role of Iron and Steel Industry in poem themes India GDP: 12 2. Organizational Background - 2.1 History 13 2.2 Mission 14 2.3 Quality 14 3. Major Problems faced in any steel industry: 15 3.1 Managerial problems: - 15 3.2 Operational Problems: 15 3.3 HRM problems: 16 CHAPTER ? LITERATURE REVIEW 1. Introduction 1.1 Global Scenario of Steel Industry: G. Thousands of quality examples at FEMA: Levels of Planning, your fingertips! Writing doesnt have to be hard.
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On the FEMA: of Planning Essay Life of basic idea herbert interactionism? Augustus: Cassius Dio. The Roman History is a huge and famed work concerning the development of the Roman empire from the early republic to his own day in the post Antoine world. It is historys main source of FEMA: of Planning Essay information on many central issues in Roman politics and intellectual history. Basic George Herbert? It is of Planning Essay, divided, according to Dio, into the familiar divisions of poem themes Roman history that remain today. FEMA: Of Planning? The period of the Republic, where all political and social power rested with the senate and the population at large, then the carl sandburg takeover of Augustus, leading to the death of the Stoic emperor Marcus, then, lastly his own day.
Hence, the order of the work is FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay, clear, and remains the Essay standard ordering of Roman history today. The work is not pleasant reading since he has the tendency to merely recite events. FEMA: Of Planning Essay? He appears at basic idea mead symbolic the opposite of Herodotus in this respect. Dry facts and dates, while meticulously put together, make for FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay very tedious reading. Nevertheless, one has the worst of cultural both worlds when, usually out of nowhere, he uses what Philip Cary calls rhetorical commonplaces (Introduction xiv), where the really useful details of warfare are left out in order that the typical and cliche Roman rhetorical devices can be dusted off. Need essay sample on On the Life of FEMA: Essay Augustus: Cassius Dio ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. What needs to be noted early on is that Dio was a senator. He is from a senatorial family from Greece, and he himself held that office. He was a historian and a lifelong civil servant. Hence, there are two biases from his state: a Greek background and, importantly, a class status of high patrician, or a Senator, that one might expect to lead him into anti-empire descriptions, since the empire was built on the increasing irrelevance of the sandburg Senate. Octavian, soon to be Augustus, became the adopted son of the FEMA: wildly popular Julius Caesar.
In the literature, he is referred to as Caesar, Octavian, and, when taking power, Augustus. Art? This can be confusing to the reader. FEMA: Levels Of Planning Essay? He very quickly sought to poem themes take action to FEMA: of Planning claim the throne. His only threat was Antony, one who made himself unpopular with the population because he did not take action against Julius assassins (Dio 45: 417). Dio makes the claim that, fairly early on, Julius adopted the young Augustus and began training him as a successor (Dio 45: 419). Antony moved equally as quick, attempting to buy off the army with grants of land. It was clear that, no matter the public face of events, Antony and Octavian were enemies. Only one man could run the empire over the long term.
He approached the army clumsily, and homogeneity, apparently, did not bribe them enough (45: 431). Most soon tool Caesars side against Antony. Brutus, the murderer of Julius, was governor of Gaul. He did not trust Antony, and hence, Antonys pleas to him went unheeded. Ultimately, it was the speech of the famed lawyer Cicero that turned many more against Antony (46: ch. FEMA: Levels Of Planning? 5). Nevertheless, Antony still had powerful supporters.
Antonys plan was to make certain the cultural most powerful African provinces were under his control. Brutus in Gaul, however, was backed by the Senate. The Senate will be shown to be extremely fickle, oppositionist one minute, slavish the next. This becomes one of Dios most harsh condemnations of his own class. The wording of Dios attacks speaks of a highly emotional appeal. He views his own Senatorial class back then as corrupt and, worse, vacillating. He sees no patriotism, no love of country, but mere self-serving activities. Antony, Caesar and FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay, Lepidus (the triumvirate) entered Rome and began to destroy elements of the population that might be hostile to them. They sought to appear friendly, but everything about them was aimed at enmity.
The murders were of the wealthy, the powerful, those who might turn on them in the future, though Dio makes it clear that Antony was the homogeneity chief leader of the Levels murder bands, since he was less powerful (47: 129). This was aimed at decimating the associates herbert senatorial class so as to smooth their way to power. Dio mentions the military leader Sulla and FEMA: Levels of Planning, his own decimation of this class acting as a precedent for their actions. Sandburg? Roman politics can be reduced to FEMA: of Planning Essay battles between the senatorial class and the emperor, supported by the army. Dio does not attempt to downplay the violence, but, as the description goes on in Book 47, he makes it clear that Octavian was not really a part of the violence. It is possible that this was an what idea george symbolic, afterthought on Dios part, making certain that Octavian remains innocent, though this is not clear at the beginning of the description. Caesar saved as many as possible during the massacre, as Dio is attempting to save his reputationor so it seems. Antony was to gain power by any means necessary, this Dio makes clear.
So while Octavian has the right of succession as being Julius adopted son, Antony is then depicted as conniving to gain power illegally, or at least, immorally. The Senate had declared him an outlaw, and Antony had created an Gaulish army that he thought might win him the Roman power. Nevertheless the destruction of so many wealthy patrons meant that the new rulers, Octavian and Antony in particular, could control the body in of Planning, the future, replacing dead members with new ones loyal to them. This is always the upshot of the attacks on the Senate, whether physical or legislative, making the oligarchy subservient to the emperors (and the armys) plans. Much of the property confiscated went to allies, and especially, the army.
This is yet another recurring theme: paying off the army with lands from conquered peoples is central to effective political rule in Rome. Dio is honest about the implications of this all-important policy. They also outdid each other in magnifying Julius Caesar, hoping by A Brief Essay, this method to gain the trust of the frightened populous. Antony and Caesar went out on campaign, as emperors should do, while the consul Lepidus, the third in the triumvirate, remained in the city. FEMA:? This latter was basically a nonentity, but was effective in counter-reformation, the short run as administering the long neglected city of Rome. FEMA: Levels Of Planning Essay? The senate was suspicious of Caesar, since he was growing in popularity. Brutus of Gaul, himself popular in the Greek provinces, sought an alliance with the Senate (47: 163). After the campaign, both Caesar and Antony sought to cultural placate their men by Levels Essay, grants of land. Counter-reformation Art? Only the consul was nervous, and he was soon to be dispatched. Brutus and Sextus of Sicily, sensing the divisions in the executive, sought to create their own alliances so as to take power. This will be dealt with later.
Socially, Dio is a Senator, that means that one might expect him to support the political claims of his class, which were, in general, control over the Roman emperor and a stronger stress on oligarchy. In Dios case that is not true: he holds to the dignity of the emperor as something truly Roman, he stresses strength and patriotism over the weakness that his own class might be expected to support. His hostility to FEMA: Levels Essay Cicero is legendary, and yet, Cicero is the poem themes hero of the Senate and the republican cause in general. It was the empire, rather than a class or office, that Dio seems to support more than anything else, and, since he is going against his class much of the time, it might be said that this magnifies his reliability as a historian. The notion of the empire being in a constant dialectical motion with regard to FEMA: Levels of Planning the senate is also of Dios devising, a schema that most historians use today in dealing with all things Roman. Quotations King? As for FEMA: Essay his writing style, it is rather dry and descriptive, but his meaning is clear.
In his dealings with the killing of Brutus (48: pg. 221), he believes it the will of heaven that such a thing happened, since Brutus himself was a murderer. Art? The army is shown as basically fickle, demanding money and land above everything else, remaining apolitical so long as the FEMA: of Planning bribes come through on time. In Augustus case, the army was a problem in the early years of the diumvirate with Antony, since the Senate backed Caesar rather than Antony, rightly viewing the counter-reformation art future Augustus as being less bloodthirsty that his rival, now taking over Africa, a place that Antony will soon make his base, and the food source of the empire itself. The story Dio tells between Octavian and Antony is occasionally difficult to follow.
Antony, at first dismissive of Octavian as a younger man, was forced, given his rivals behavior at Rome, to make peace with him. They both had substantial power bases, both had some claim to power, and the senate, realizing this, reversed their earlier decree against Antony. FEMA:? There was substantial moves to create pease between the two warriors so as to save the city any future bloodshed. Nevertheless, Octavian needed to continually placate the art army, the Essay bad guy in Dios narrative, and in order to do this there must be an poem themes, eviction of many Italians to make way for the land allotments for 10,000 former soldiers. Antony made some use of this to of Planning Essay attempt to turn the population from Octavian. Nevertheless, Octavian remains in Rome while Antony moved against the ever threatening Parthian empire in the east. Soon, Octavian will destroy yet another rival in Sextus, a rival who had dominated the wealthy island of Sicily,, after losing several naval engagements. A Brief Freud Essay? When Octavian was master of the west, it was no just Antony and Octavian, the Sextan threat was gone. (49: 15) The defeat of Sextus led to the Senate considering Octavian to be the war leader par excellence. Levels Of Planning Essay? Generally, it was clear that Sextus was considered an outlaw, as Antony once was, and his defeat was generally considered popular by the Roman population.
Sextus was using the powerful and strategic island of Sicily in order to Biography Freud Essay control Rome thourgh the manipulation of grain supplies coming from Egypt. In fact, this method of control led Augustus to late begin building the port cities of southern Italy, such as Ostia, so as to bypass Sicily. At the same time Antony was losing against the Parthians and their sometime enemy the Armenians (49: 19). While this was happening, Octavian took over the government of Rome, using his talented ally Aggripa as local satrap, providing necessary services to the Roman state, incuding the Levels all-powerful city of Rome itself. Antony began creating an eastern empire for himselfand is now married to Cleopatrastill, it should be noted, while married to Octavians sister, something that caused some problems with the from king lear always self-righteous Senate.
Antony even went so far as to create his own anti-senate in Egypt, while at the same time his rival had formally denounced him to the actual Roman Senate in the city itself. Antonys followers, knowing of the FEMA: Levels of Planning violence his rival could do, fled eastward. The Roman world was apparently split in two. It could not have been a popular move to create an anti-empire in the east with a foreign queen given august titles and power beyond her abilities. (50: ch 3) Dios writing style emerges from of Sigmund Freud Essay, dry description, and, seemingly animated by the idea of a split Roman world, begins to write more as a novelist than a historian. Levels Of Planning Essay? This is a change for the better. Naval warfare won the day for Octavian. While massive forces were arrayed in Greece, the battle of Acitum led to an victory for Octavians forces, since the fleet of Antony, not inconsiderable, was trapped, and their attempt to what idea associates george with interactionism? move outward was defeated by Octavian. Antonys forces on land, seeing the defeat of their boss naval forces, defected to that of Augustus, and Actium was considered the turning point in Roman history. (Dio 51). This was the last gasp of the republic, and saw, oddly enough, an alliance of Octavian with the Roman senate. Maybe not so odd, since the Roman population as a whole was outraged by the creation of an anti-empire, giving the eastern lands away to FEMA: Levels a Grecian queen, Cleopatra.
It was only when Antony married, however, that permitted the Senate to declare war. The dismembering of the empire was not a problem, it only cultural was the marriage alliance that roused them to action. Dio here has no mercy on his fellow senators. Octavian as a military leader is laid out in FEMA: of Planning Essay, some detail in book 53. He stressed experience over numbers, slow cutting away at cultural homogeneity his rivals rather than glorious sudden engagements. Being the ward of Julius Caesar paid off.
The naval forces of Octavian were smaller, but loaded with former veterans, seasoned soldiers and sailors who made mincemeat of Antonys larger but less experienced forces. The very fact that they so quickly abandoned Antony says something about their dedication. The point now was to of Planning take the power given to him, and use it wisely. Few thought the art republic was worth saving, and, given the of Planning divisions in of Sigmund Freud Essay, the empire, it was time to heal, and to of Planning Essay create a unified state where the wealthy would have a check placed on their ambition. (Dio, 53 chapters 1 and 2). Octavian feigned a lack of interest in rule, and the Senate sought him out, attempting to convince him of his necessity to the city. He took power at their suggestion and began to appoint governors for the most powerful provinces in the eastEgypt and Syriaand the west, in Gaul. In Chapter 53, Dio deals with the conspiracy against Augustus and how this was used as an excuse to begin destroying opposition, something depicted as an unfortunate necessity given the former split in the empire. Unfortunately, the reader is forced to agree with Dios assessment, as Roman politics is never a smooth game, Dio is convincing and Biography of Sigmund, eloquent here. Augustus took over all foreign and domestic roles as Emperor, and FEMA: Levels Essay, created what one might call today a new order. He was, using stealth, slowly concentrating power to himself with the senates assistance, but ultimately at their expense. In book 53 (chapters 1 and 2), Octavian is counter-reformation, shown taking more and more power, while all the time he posed as a passive participant.
His wild popularity with the people made it possible for him to take full power while retaining the trappings of republicanism, and it is in their ruse that Dio makes the single most famous element of Essay Octavians rule. Carl Poems? It is in this description that gave later historians all the ammunition they needed to judge the Roman Augustus. Dio writes: In this way he had his supremacy ratified by the senate and by the people as well. But as he wished even so to be thought democratic, while he accepted all the Levels care and oversight of the public business, on the ground that it required some attention on art, his part, yet he declared he would not personally govern all the provinces, and that in the case of such provinces as he should govern he would not do so indefinitely; and he did, in fact, restore to the senate the FEMA: Essay weaker provinces, on the ground that they were peaceful and free from war, while he retained the more powerful, alleging that they were insecure and precarious and either had enemies on their borders or were able on their own account to begin a serious revolt. His professed motive in this was that the senate might fearlessly enjoy the finest portion of the empire, while he himself had the hardships and the dangers; but his real purpose was that by this arrangement the senators will be unarmed and unprepared for battle, while he alone had arms and maintained soldiers (53: 220). Augustus reformed the army, creating a more regular division of men with a regular salary. This was a central reform.
He also moved them to the ever porous frontiers, where they could do useful work and, importantly, can be kept out of politics. The Senate was put in its place. It was clearly a second rate entity under the Augustinian monarchy. Being an intelligent statesman, he treated the senate with decorum, and carl, it was almost like the senate was not losing power at all. New offices were created where wealthy supporters of Octavians order can take some share of power. A new bureaucracy was developing where Octavian can staff it with his own friends, crating a new clientele. The provinces were treated well, and the governors were chosen not merely for FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay their support of the quotations king lear new state but for their competence. Client kingships were permitted to continue. He treated the provinces the say he treated the senate. In chapter 17 of Book 53, Dio writes: In this way the power of both people and senate passed entirely into the hands of Augustus, and from his time there was, strictly speaking, a monarch; for monarchy would be the truest name for it, no matter if two or three men did later hold the FEMA: Levels of Planning power at the same time. The name of monarchy, to be sure, the Romans so detested that they called their emperors neither dictators nor kings nor anything of the sort; yet since the final authority for the government devolves upon them, they must needs be kings.
The offices established by the laws, it is true, are maintained even now, except that of censor; but the entire direction and administration is homogeneity, absolutely in accordance with the wishes of the one in power at the time. And yet, in order to of Planning preserve the homogeneity appearance of having this power by virtue of the laws and not because of their own domination, the emperors have taken to themselves all the functions, including the titles, of the offices which under the republic and by the free gift of the people were powerful, with the single exception of the dictatorship. He sought to reform the morals of the elite, something important for the maintenance of social stability. He sought to limit divorces and to FEMA: Levels of Planning reward child rearing, He became a patron of the arts and literature. In book 53, it is poem themes, clear that our writer is a fan of Octavian. He explains that the celebrations of his victory and his coming to power were based on his own wealth; he refused to use public money to celebrate his victories.
At the same time, he abolished many new laws that had been made by the triumvirate, which made him more popular, since Antony by this time was loathed in Rome, and the latters suicide was considered a loss of minor importance. In chapter 19, Dio writes In this way the government was changed at FEMA: Essay that time for idea mead with the better and in the interest of FEMA: Levels greater security; for it was no doubt quite impossible for the people to be saved under a republic. Counter-reformation Art? What is the most interesting is Augustus address to the Roman people. He makes significant points that solidify his rule, he provides a constitution of sorts that would typify the sort of state that was slowly coming into being. He first, without surprise speaks of his army reforms, making a stronger and FEMA: of Planning, more rationalized force to deal with the frontier problems that will beset Rome until the end of her life. Since Dio well knows of these problems, he begins here a foreshadowing technique, attributing to counter-reformation art Octavian a substantial amount of prophetic insight, of Levels a sort. The army, by being mentioned first in george herbert mead interactionism?, his long speech, shows that army reform was primary in Octavians mind, since the loyalties of the Levels of Planning Essay army are necessary for any kind of social reform to take place, in fact for any monarch to successfully rule Rome. Cultural? Then, he speaks of mercy, the desire to unify the empire and spare the lives of his former enemies.
The fact that these two subjects are juxtaposed is significant, since army reform speaks of violence and Levels, defense, while mercy, of the opposite. What Basic Herbert Mead With Symbolic Interactionism?? The structure of this speech (one can presume Dio edited some of it) is very telling, and skillfully placed together. Many of them had fled anyway, but the city of Rome itself was to be unified, and again made the heart of the empire. This makes sense since the real reason Antony was hated was is desire to FEMA: of Planning Essay create a new Rome in Alexandria. Associates Herbert Mead With? Hence, he is appealing to Roman patriotism, something always central to Dio. He speaks of giving up his own office, of FEMA: of Planning Essay giving power back to the people, with the homogeneity notion, though unstated, that it would be given back to him in trust. FEMA: Essay? He did not want power, so he says, and is even willing to give the peaceful and wealthy provinces to Biography of Sigmund Freud the senate, while he alone takes the strife-filled ones.
The point here is that he will take the provinces that are filled with troops, while giving the Senate wealthy and peaceful provinces, but provinces without any men. It was a brilliant tactic, met with approval by Dio. He speaks of himself as a lover of peace, and FEMA: Essay, goes through great pains to connect himself to Julius Caesar, the bringer of peace and sandburg poems, plenty to the citizens of Rome (and ton of booty from foreign conquest, distributed to the Roman population). The fact that the civil war is over FEMA: of Planning means the society can be unified again, bringing peace back to the strife-torn Roman state. He speaks of cooperation and the unity of cultural homogeneity all classes within the empire and the city of Rome itself. FEMA: Levels Of Planning? In order to do this, he says, the ancient laws of Rome should be guarded. The populace is interested, apparently in two things, revolution and tradition. Essay? Opposites? Not according to Levels Dio: he speaks of revolution, he speaks of a radically altered constitution, but he also speaks of the placating of popular opinion by at least using rhetoric that is traditional, and holding that the ancient Roman traditions need to be revived and guarded so as to ensure the stability of the people and the city. Dio reports Octavian to Biography of Sigmund Freud Essay say: And yet, after all, I feel no hesitancy about suggesting to you in a summary way what ought to be done in each of the leading departments of administration.
And what are these suggestions? In the first place, guard vigilantly the established laws and change none of them; for what remains fixed, even though it be inferior, is more advantageous than what is always subject to innovations, even though it seems to be superior. Next, pay strict heed to do whatever these laws enjoin upon you and to refrain from whatever they forbid, and do this not only in word but also in deed, not only in public but also in private, that you may obtain, not penalties, but honors. Entrust the offices both of peace and of war to those who are the most excellent and the most prudent, harboring no jealousy of Essay any man, and indulging in rivalry, not to advance the private interests of this or that man, but to keep the city safe and make it prosperous (53: 10). Private interest needs to be rejected, Octavian says. This is very important to Dio, since the senate is the very nexus of private interest, and everything that was bad about the old republic. It has proven itself incompetent in the past precisely because it was an oligarchy, not an aristocracy. The fact that Dio is part of this class is telling; he is poem themes, no doubt speaking the truth for FEMA: Levels he breaks rank with his own class to condemnat least the oldsenate, but clearly praising the new one since it supports the cultural homogeneity monarchy. As we have said: this senate has been purged many times, and Levels, its new members are powerful, royally minded, and need to counter-reformation be brought into the realm of FEMA: Levels of Planning rule, not rejected by it.
Hence one can be a senator and be pro-emperor. Basic Idea Associates George Herbert With Interactionism?? But it is the old senate that is to be condemned as a oligarchy. He speaks of Levels of Planning treating the provinces well. These provinces are friends and allies of the Roman state, and should not be treated as cash cows. This is very important, since the of Sigmund Freud Essay empire is based around a steady stream of revenue from the provinces. His reform of the rule of the provinces is something extremely important to FEMA: Octavian, and important to what basic idea george with interactionism? the stability of the empire.
They need competent and FEMA:, public spirited governors, not self-seeking senators and upper classmen. Peaceful provinces, independent of his plans with respect to the senate, are better for the empire than rebellious ones. It is important that public spirit be resurrected, it is A Brief Biography Essay, central to the Roman idea, and cannot be destroyed by self-interest and self-seeking. Again, this is a central recurring theme throughout this work, and its influence on Levels of Planning Essay, later generations of historians is incalculable. Biography? The literary effect is that the empire is a democratically ratified constitution, state and FEMA: Levels of Planning, way of poem themes political life. The emperor is populist, the senate, oligarchic. They are opposites, literary types, as it were. But not merely literary types, but rather, historic forces that will appear and reappear throughout the FEMA: of Planning history of the west. The people, according to counter-reformation art Dio (52, pg.
219), demand royal government. They see stability and Levels of Planning Essay, legal reformnot to counter-reformation art mention subsidiescoming from centralized government. FEMA: Essay? They have had enough of the division of the self-seeking politicians, and quotations from king lear, want the results that they are convinced Augustus can provide for them. Central state power, it seems, is only a threat to FEMA: Essay the oligarchy, to Antonys former supporters, politicians and senators who want a free playing field for self-enrichment. The people then, demand the royal power be taken in full by Octavian (cf. 53: 12). It is clear, however, theat the senate, whether from loyalty or from fear, ratified the new position of Augustus. Many of them are creatures of Octavian, many simply support him because the political wind is blowing in a certain direction. The are also mollified, as aforesaid, by the notion of having full control over counter-reformation art peaceful provinces such as Egypt.
The plan and development of Levels of Planning rule is brilliant here, and the brilliance of it is certainly not lost on Dio. Dio has created a literary figure, the stuff of legend, in Octavian. This is not to denigrate his historical credentials, but to understand that, from a dry beginning, Dio has blossomed into lear, a true historical novelist. Creating types, oligarchic self interest, division and patriotism, as well as populism in FEMA: Levels, office, that will themselves become the very vocabulary of the historical profession right up until the 21st century. Dio says, writing from his position many years after the fact, that the art royal authority taken and created by Augustus has now become tradition. FEMA: Levels Of Planning? (53, pg.
59) which is another way of saying that it has worked, for something cannot become tradition unless it has delivered the goods that has withstood the test of time and created an even more powerful, peaceful and prosperous Roman state. He clearly states that this new state, created by Augustus and his unprecedented situation having defeated Anthony and preserved the unity of the poem themes empire, a unity far better than in the old republic. Such is the number and Levels of Planning Essay, nature of the what idea george appellations which those who possess the imperial power employ in accordance with the FEMA: Levels laws and with what has now become tradition. At present all of them are, as a rule, bestowed upon the emperors at one and the same time, with the exception of the title of censor; but to the earlier emperors they were voted separately the different times. So says Dio in Book 53. What Basic Idea With Symbolic? The emperor appears to be even handed, by changing advisors every six months, so as to permit of no factionalism (53, pg 245). Levels Of Planning Essay? Factions more than anything else are odious to the people of Rome, who view Octavian as one who has restored unity, and hence, the ability of the A Brief Biography Freud state to continue to achieve its aims, significantly, after army reform and transportation reform. The rebuilding of roads is significant, for it is a central service of the Roman state, and this has been left to abandonment during the long period of Levels civil wars and quotations from king lear, unrest. The roads are also a symbol of Roman unity, and hence, their repair and reconstruction are emblematic of Augustus plans and his public image. The repair of the FEMA: of Planning Essay roads encourages commerce, but, more importantly for the Roman population, they symbolize the idea associates symbolic interactionism? unity and strength of the empire.
After defeating the Alpine tribes, land in of Planning Essay, that part of the world, north-eastern Gaul, was given to members of the Roman guard, the poem themes personal bodyguard of the emperor. The praetorian guard itself. Of Planning? At the same time, he sought to give subsidies to cultural the people after the pacification of the Gallic province. Dio writes at FEMA: Levels of Planning the beginning of basic associates george mead symbolic interactionism? book 54 that the reign of Augustus was moderate. This means it maintained a mean between dictatorship on FEMA: Essay, the one hand, and slavish populism on poem themes, the other. He created, in this sense, a new set of political virtues. FEMA: Levels Of Planning Essay? There was no grand campaigns, no tyranny, but there waswithout a tear being shedseveral more purges of the senatorial body. Much of the beginning of this book is dedicated to the decadence of the Senate, of bribe taking and, barring that, servile flattery towards the emperor.
Only a few were executed, but the Senate was continually rendered toothless, but could never be abolished altogether. He reformed jury trials, making trials public, and all deliberations available to the common folk. His moderation is found in the request of the senatehe always make such requests, regardless of his dominating the latterthat Rome make no further conquests. Rome had reached her natural limits, with the understanding that it was now time to rationally govern what the king lear Romans already had, rather than seeking to paper over incompetent rule with promises of future conquests and the slaves and booty that such conquests provided. This was an open challenge to the senate, though Dio is rather reserve in Essay, developing it as such.
He still seeks to basic idea associates george herbert symbolic maintain the of Planning Essay fiction that the senate, though purged, was an independent body. , it was not, and its independence was challenged by the demand that rule be one of stewardship, rather than simply continued conquest. The senate later, as Dio well knows, was not up to this challenge. This is what was going on in the poem themes city. Augustus administered the subject territory according to FEMA: the customs of the Romans, but permitted the allied nations to be governed in poem themes, their own traditional manner; and he did not regard it as desirable either to make any additions to the former or to extend the latter by any new acquisitions, but thought it best to be satisfied with precisely what they already possessed, and he communicated this opinion to the senate (Dio 54, 9) On page 323, another important piece of of Planning legislation is discussed, that against bribe taking. What Idea Associates George With Symbolic? Continual moral reform was as important as anything else in the empire, abnd both int terms of sexual fidelity, as well as financial fidelity, morals were enforced.
Marriage and honest dealing were encouraged, and anyone convicted of taking bribes was given the relatively moderate punishment of being debarred from office for 5 years. He sought to continually replace senators and harm senatorial power by decreeing that any wealthy person in the empire is eligible for office. And even here, if the property qualification was not met with by a competent man, it was provided by the emperor himself. Of Planning? In this way, more and more clients of the counter-reformation king were created, recreating the Roman state, maintaining an oligarchy, but with the Levels of Planning understanding that money was the true route to power, not being a part of the formerly closed senatorial class. Here, he could split the upper class over the spoils of office.
When he had done this, he purged the what basic herbert mead with interactionism? senatorial body. For the members seemed to him to be too numerous even now, and he saw nothing good in a large throng; moreover, he hated not only those who were notorious for some baseness, but also those who were conspicuous for of Planning their flattery. And when, as on homogeneity, the previous occasion, no one would resign of his own free will, and FEMA: of Planning, Augustus, in his turn, did not wish to incur blame alone, he himself selected the thirty best men (a point which he afterwards confirmed by oath) and bade them, after first taking the same oath, choose five at a time, relatives not to be included, by writing the names on tablets (54: 13) The local opposition parties were silenced by A Brief Biography Freud Essay, victorious missions to Gaul, where the endlessly difficult Celtic tribes of the Alpine region were pacified again and FEMA: of Planning Essay, again. When things got too hot in the capital, it was easy to leave for a time, and earn some socially necessary military victories, always significant in creating popularity, though Dio does not make this inference. Though bad in itself, the behavior of the Celtic tribes, described by A Brief Biography, Dio in almost unutterable forms, made the victories over them all the more significant to the new reign. The Celts apparently began slaughtering their Roman captives, and even made daring raids into central Italy, having already taken the fertile and strategic Po valley in the north. These victories provided greater popularity and proved the competence of the new reign, since the FEMA: Levels Senate, time and poem themes, again, proved itself incompetent to deal with military disturbances in the western provinces before. In the process, he mad many new citizens, and granted some cities their liberties under the FEMA: Levels Essay indirect rule of associates george herbert with symbolic Rome. Again, all of this was good policy, both for Rome and her allies, but also for building up provincial clients for the new government and FEMA: Essay, system. It is precisely in this client building measures that the new system was to what basic associates george mead last as long as it did, to become tradition in the words of Dio.
These measures are clearly approved by our historian, as they are the very building blocks of a newly stabilized and just Roman empire. In these cities and re-conquered provinces, he created local forms of government, maintained local customs, and attached them, via the newly reconstructed roads, to commerce with the capital. He provided them with stable currency, which did nothing but stimulate more and Levels, more trade and economic development. New classes of elites developed in the provinces which werre basically creates of the empire, for their owned their success to the Roman empire. Hence, granting liberties was doing nothing but cementing them further into the Roman state. This is an basic associates george herbert mead with symbolic interactionism?, issue that Dio returns to again and again. FEMA: Of Planning Essay? In a daring move, Dio reports that, as senatorial families, some ancient, had lapsed into poverty, he permitted knights or low level soldiers of distinction, to be able to take senatorial posts. Though still a very prestigious position, life as a senator was becoming more difficult, more humiliating and more dangerous,.
Hence, even among some of the older senatorial families, there were many who did not want to take seats, and used their financial ineligibility as an excuse. Many lower level soldiers, the art Roman knights, were given these posts, making the same a more and FEMA: of Planning Essay, more popular body with the population, the army and art, with the elite in the provinces, many of whom had local bodies similar in composition to the Roman senate, and all basing their legitimacy on the emperor (54- 26). By way of conclusion, by the time the reader is finished with these 10 central books of The Roman History, one comes away with an ambiguous picture. There is the creation of literary types, with their archetypal virtues and vices: the senate, self seeking; the emperor, populist and strong; the people, wanting strong rule, basically virtuous; the army, ever fickle and corruptible. Ultimately, there is Essay, only one character in this description: that of the basic idea george mead with symbolic interactionism? empire itself. All the above types serve the empire in one way of another, some bad, others good. The armys claim is based on its central role in creating the empire in the first place. The senate seems to have no claim at all, except by claim of descent, a claim made absurd by Dio.
Dio ends by FEMA: Levels, implying that the what basic associates george herbert empire is Essay, best served by a connection between people, army and emperor, and that the senate is far from the quotations from king lear repository of political wisdom it was created to be. Dios style is reserved, occasionally religious, and, in the end, has a powerful belief in fate, though this is far from blind fate, and in Dios treatment, nothing is done by chance. Virtue, and Levels of Planning Essay, virtue alone, regardless of its specific institutionalization, is central to everything. Man makes his own luck.
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close read essay and the of Planning Mental States I Believe They Have and sandburg Need in Levels Essay, Order. to Participate in the Social Relationships I have Observed. By Karen Davis, PhD, President of United Poultry Concerns. of Toronto in cultural, Ontario, is the opening chapter in Experiencing Animal Minds: An Anthology of. Animal-Human Encounters , ed. Julie A. Smith Robert W. Mitchell, Columbia University Press, 2012. I looked at FEMA: Levels Essay, the Chicken endlessly, and I wondered. What lay behind the Biography of Sigmund Freud Essay veil of Levels animal secrecy?
In this essay, I discuss the social life of chickens and the mental states that I believe they have and need in what basic associates george with, order to participate in the social relationships that I have observed in them. What follows is a personalized, candid discussion of Essay what I know, what I think I know, and what idea associates george herbert mead with what I am unsure of but have observed relevant to the minds of Levels of Planning chickens in their relationships with each other and with other species and A Brief of Sigmund Essay with me. Chickens evolved in the foothills of the Himalayan Mountains and the tropical forests of Southeast Asia where they have lived and FEMA: of Planning raised their families for thousands of homogeneity years. Most people I talk to Levels of Planning had no idea that chickens are natives of a rugged, forested habitat filled with vibrant tropical colors and Biography sounds. Similarly surprising to many is the FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay fact that chickens are endowed with memory and emotions, and poems that they have a keenly developed consciousness of one another and of their surroundings. A newspaper reporter who visited our sanctuary a few years ago was surprised to learn that chickens recognize each other as individuals, especially after they’ve been separated.
A friend and I had recently rescued a hen and FEMA: Levels of Planning a rooster in a patch of woods alongside a road in rural Virginia on the Eastern Shore. The first night we managed to get the hen out of the tree, but the basic idea interactionism? rooster got away. The following night after hours of FEMA: Levels playing hide and seek with him in the rain, we succeeded in netting the rooster, and the two were reunited at our sanctuary. When the reporter visited a few days later, she was impressed that these two chickens, Lois and Lambrusco, were foraging together as a couple, showing that they remembered each other after being apart. Chickens form memories that influence their social behavior from the time they are embryos, and they update their memories over the course of their lives.
I’ve observed their memories in action at our sanctuary. For instance, if I have to remove a hen from the poem themes flock for two or three weeks in order to treat an infection, when I put her outside again, she moves easily back into the flock, which accepts her as if she had never been away. There may be a little showdown, a tiff instigated by Levels of Planning Essay, another hen, but the challenge is quickly resolved. Best of all, I’ve watched many a returning hen be greeted by her own flock members led by the rooster walking over and gathering around her conversably, as if they were saying to what idea george herbert mead her, “Where have you been?” and Levels of Planning “How are you?” and “We’re glad you’re back.” My Experience with Mother Hens and Biography of Sigmund Essay Their Families. What of the hens whom we observe each day at home, with what care and assiduity they govern and guard their chicks? Some let down their wings for FEMA: of Planning, the chicks to come under; others arch their backs for art, them to climb upon; there is no part of FEMA: of Planning Essay their bodies with which they do not wish to cherish their chicks if they can, nor do they do this without a joy and alacrity which they seem to counter-reformation exhibit by the sound of their voices. - Plutarch. The purpose of our sanctuary on the Virginia Eastern Shore is to FEMA: of Planning Essay provide a home for homogeneity, chickens who already exist, rather than adding to the population and thus diminishing our capacity to adopt more birds. For this reason we do not allow our hens to hatch their eggs in of Planning Essay, the spring and early summer as they would otherwise do, given their association with the roosters in our yard.
All of our birds have been adopted from situations of what associates interactionism? abandonment or abuse, or else they were no longer wanted or able to be cared for by their previous owners. Our two-acre sanctuary is a fenced open yard that shades into tangled wooded areas filled with trees, bushes, vines, undergrowth and the soil chickens love to Essay scratch in all year round. A Brief Biography Essay? It also includes several smaller fenced enclosures with chicken-wire roofs, each with its own predator-proof house, for chickens who are inclined to fly over fences during chick-hatching season, and FEMA: of Planning thus be vulnerable to the raccoons, foxes, owls, possums and other predators inhabiting the woods and carl sandburg poems fields around us. I learned the FEMA: of Planning hard way about the vulnerability of cultural homogeneity chickens to FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay predators. Once, a hen named Eva, who had jumped the basic idea associates george herbert mead symbolic fence and been missing for several weeks, reappeared in early June with a brood of eight fluffy chicks. This gave me a chance to observe directly some of the maternal behavior I had read so much about. Levels? We had adopted Eva into our sanctuary along with several other hens and a rooster confiscated during a cockfighting raid in Alabama.
Watching Eva travel around the cultural homogeneity yard, outside the sanctuary fence with her tiny brood close behind her, was like watching a family of wild birds whose dark and golden feathers blended perfectly with the woods and foliage they melted in and out of during the day. Levels Of Planning Essay? Periodically, at the edge of the woods, Eva would squat down with her feathers puffed out, and her peeping chicks would all run under her wings for comfort and counter-reformation warmth. A few minutes later, the FEMA: of Planning Essay family was on george herbert, the move again. Throughout history, hens have been praised for FEMA: Essay, their ability to carl poems defend their young from an attacker. I watched Eva do exactly this one day when a large dog wandered in front of the magnolia tree where she and FEMA: Levels of Planning her chicks were foraging. With her wings outspread and curved menacingly toward the art dog, she rushed at him over FEMA: Essay and over, cackling loudly, all the while continuing to poem themes push her chicks behind herself with her wings. The dog stood stock still before the excited mother hen, and soon ambled away, but Eva maintained her aggressive posture of self-defense, her sharp, repetitive cackle and attentive lookout for several minutes after he was gone. Eva’s behavior toward the dog differed radically from her behavior toward me, demonstrating her ability to distinguish between a likely predator and someone she perceived as presenting no dire threat to her and her chicks. FEMA:? She already knew me from the sandburg sanctuary yard, and though I had never handled her apart from lifting her out of the FEMA: Levels Essay crate she’d arrived in from Alabama several months earlier, when I started discreetly stalking her and her family, to get the carl poems closest possible view of them, the most she did when she saw me coming was dissolve with her brood into the woods or disappear under the magnolia tree. While she didn’t see me as particularly dangerous, she nevertheless maintained a wary distance that, over time, diminished to Essay where she increasingly brought her brood right up to the sanctuary fence, approaching the front steps of our house, and counter-reformation art ever closer to me - but not too close just yet. When she and her chicks were out and about, and I called to her, “Hey, Eva,” she’d quickly look up at me, poised and alert for several seconds, before resuming her occupation.
One morning, I looked outside expecting to Essay see the little group in quotations king, the dewy grass, but they were not there. Knowing that mother raccoons prowled nightly looking for food for their own youngsters in the summer, I sadly surmised they were the FEMA: of Planning likely reason that I never saw my dear Eva and her chicks again. I kneeled down and stared into the face of the chick who looked intently back at me, before it hid itself, then peeked out again. I looked closely into quotations king lear, Daffodil’s face as well, knowing from FEMA: of Planning, experience that making direct eye contact with chickens is crucial to forming a trusting, friendly relationship with them. Art? If chickens see people only from the FEMA: Levels of Planning standpoint of boots and poems shoes, and people don’t look them in the eye and talk to them, no bond of friendship will be formed between human and bird.
I’ve seen this difference expressed between hens we’ve adopted into our sanctuary from an egg production facility, for example, and chickens brought to us as young birds or as someone’s former pet. Former egg-industry hens tend to look back at me, not with that sharp, bright, direct focus of of Planning Essay a fully confident chicken, but with a watchful opacity that no doubt in part reflects their having spent their entire previous lives in cages or on crowded floors in carl sandburg poems, dark, polluted buildings that permanently affected their eyes before coming to our sanctuary. Psychologically, it’s as if they’ve pulled down a little curtain between themselves and FEMA: Essay human beings that does not prevent friendship but infuses their recovery with a settled strain of poem themes fear. FEMA: Levels Of Planning? I’ll say more about these hens presently. From the very first, a large red rooster named Francis regularly visited Daffodil and her chick in art, their nesting place, and Daffodil acted happy and content to have him there. FEMA: Levels Essay? Frequently, I found him quietly sitting with her and the little chick, who scrambled around both of them, in and out of their feathers. Though roosters will mate with more than one hen in the flock, a rooster and a hen will also form bonds so strong that they will refuse to mate with anyone else.
Could it be that Francis was the father of this chick and that he and Daffodil knew it? He certainly was uniquely and intimately involved with the pair, and it wasn’t as though he was the head of the from flock, the one who oversaw all of the hens and the other roosters and was thus fulfilling his duty in that role. FEMA:? Rather, Francis seemed simply to be a member of this particular family. For the rest of the summer, Daffodil and her chick formed a kind of enchanted circle with an inviolable space all around themselves, as they roamed together in carl poems, the yard, undisturbed by the other chickens. Not once did I see Francis or any of the other roosters try to mate with Daffodil during the FEMA: of Planning time she was raising her frisky chick - the little one I named Daisy who grew up to be Sir Daisy, a large, handsome rooster with white and golden-brown feathers.
My Relationship with the Hens in sandburg, Our Sanctuary. The industry must convey the message that hens are distinct from companion species to defuse the misperceptions. - Simon Shane, Editor, Egg Industry. The poultry industry represents chickens bred for food as mentally vacuous, eviscerated organisms. FEMA: Of Planning? Hens bred for commercial egg production are said to be suited to cultural homogeneity a caged environment, with no need for personal space or normal foraging and social activity. They are characterized as aggressive cannibals who, notwithstanding their otherwise mindless passivity and affinity for of Planning Essay, cages, cannot live together in a cage without first having a portion of their sensitive beaks burned off - otherwise, it is said, they will tear each other up.
Similarly, the instinct to tend and fuss over her eggs and carl sandburg poems be a mother has been rooted out of these hens (so it is Levels of Planning claimed), and sandburg the idea of one’s having a social relationship with such hens is dismissed as silly sentimentalism. I confess I have yet to meet a single example of these so-called cannibalistic cage-loving birds. Over the Levels of Planning Essay years, we have adopted hundreds of “egg-type” hens into our sanctuary straight from the cage environment, which is all they ever knew until they were rescued and basic idea george mead with symbolic interactionism? placed gently on the ground where they felt the earth next to their bodies for Levels of Planning Essay, the first time in their lives. To watch a little group of nearly featherless hens with naked necks and mutilated beaks respond to this experience is deeply moving. Because their bones have never been properly exercised and carl poems their toenails are long and spindly for never having scratched vigorously in the ground, some hens take a few days or longer learning to walk normally and fly up to a perch and settle on it securely, but their desire to do these things is evident from the time they arrive. Chickens released from a long siege in a cage and placed on the ground almost invariably start making the tentative, increasingly vigorous gestures of taking a dustbath. They paddle and fling the dirt with their claws, rake in particles of earth with their beaks, fluff up their feathers, roll on their sides, pause from time to time with their eyes closed, and stretch out their legs in obvious relish at being able to bask luxuriously and satisfy their urge to clean themselves and to be clean. Carefully lifting a battered hen, who has never known anything before but brutal handling, out of a transport carrier and placing her on FEMA: Levels Essay, the ground to begin taking her first real dustbath (as opposed to poem themes the “vacuum” dustbaths hens try to perform in a cage) is a gesture from which a trusting relationship between human and bird grows. If hens were flowers, it would be like watching a flower unfold, or in the case of FEMA: Essay a little flock of hens set carefully on A Brief Biography, the ground together, a little field of flowers transforming themselves from withered stalks into blossoms. For chickens, dustbathing is FEMA: of Planning Essay not only a cleansing activity; it is also a social gathering. Typically, one hen begins the george process and is quickly joined by other hens and maybe one or two roosters.
Soon the birds are buried so deep in FEMA: Essay, their dustbowls that only the moving tail of a rooster or an outspread wing can be seen a few feet away. Eventually, one by one, the little flock emerges from their ritual entrancement all refreshed. Each bird stands up, vigorously shakes the from dirt particles out of his or her feathers, creating a fierce little dust storm before running off to Levels of Planning the next engaging activity. Charity (front) with Freddaflower Zelda dustbathing. Early on as I began forming our sanctuary and organization in the 1980s, I drove one day from Maryland to New York to counter-reformation pick up seven former battery-caged hens.
Instead of crating them in the car, I allowed them to sit together in the back seat on towels, so they wouldn’t be cramped yet again in FEMA:, a dark enclosure, unable to see out the quotations lear windows or to see me. Also, I wanted to watch them through my rearview mirror and talk to them. Once their flutter of anxiety and fear had subsided, the hens sat quietly in the car, occasionally standing up to stretch a leg or a wing, all the while peering out from under their pale and pendulous combs (the bright red crest on Levels Essay, top of chickens’ heads grows abnormally long, flaccid and yellowish-white in the cage environment) as I drove and spoke to them of the life awaiting. Then an what basic mead interactionism? astonishing thing happened. The most naked and pitiful looking hen began making her way slowly from the of Planning back seat, across the passenger seat separator, toward me. She crawled onto my knee and settled herself in my lap for the remainder of the quotations from lear trip.
The question has been asked whether chickens can form intentions. Do they have “intentionality”? Do they consciously formulate purposes and carry them out? In the rearview mirror I watched Bonnie, that ravaged little hen, make a difficult yet beeline trip from the FEMA: Essay backseat of the car into my lap. Reliving the scene in counter-reformation, my mind, I see her journey as her intention to reach me. Once she obtained her objective, she rested without further incident. Intentionality in chickens is shown in many ways.
An example is Levels a hen’s desire not only to lay an egg, but to lay her egg in a particular place with a particular group of hens, or in a secluded spot she has chosen - and she has definitely chosen it. I’ve watched hens delay laying their egg until they got where they wanted to Freud Essay be. Conscious or not at the outset, once the intention has been formed, the hen is consciously and emotionally committed to FEMA: Levels of Planning accomplishing it. No other interpretation of her behavior makes sense by comparison. Sarah, for example, a white leghorn hen from a battery-cage egg-laying operation who came to counter-reformation our sanctuary with osteoporosis and of Planning Essay a broken leg, was determined, as she grew stronger, to climb the front stairs of our house, one laborious step at a time, just so that she could lay her egg behind the toilet in carl poems, the bathroom next to the second floor landing. This was a hen, remember, who had never known anything before in her life but a crowded metal cage among thousands of FEMA: Levels cages in a windowless building. I was Sarah’s friendly facilitator. I cheered her on, and poem themes the interest I showed in Essay, her and carl poems her wishes and successes was a critical part of her recovery, both physical and Levels Essay mental. These days in the morning when I unhook the door of the little house in which eight hens and Sir Valery Valentine the rooster spend the counter-reformation art night, brown Josephine runs alongside me and FEMA: of Planning Essay dashes ahead down to basic idea herbert mead with symbolic interactionism? the Big House where she waits in a state of eager anticipation while I unlatch the door to let the birds who are eagerly assembled on the other side of that door out into the yard. Out they rush, and in goes Josephine, straight to the favorite spot shaped by herself and Levels of Planning her friends into a comfy nest atop three stacked bales of straw that, envisioned in her mind’s eye, she was determined to get to. Why else, unless she remembered the place and her experience in it with anticipatory pleasure, would she be determined day after day to quotations king repeat the episode?
Miss Sentinel Soul Sir Valery Valentine. In her mind’s eye as well is my own role in Essay, her morning ritual. Sandburg? I hold the Keys to the little straw Kingdom Josephine is eager to reenter, and of Planning she accompanies me trustingly and expectantly as we make our way toward it. With Symbolic Interactionism?? Likewise, our hen Charity knew that I held the keys to FEMA: the cellar where she laid her eggs for years in a pile of books in a cabinet beside a table I worked at. Unlike Josephine, Charity wanted to lay her egg in what basic idea george mead with symbolic, a private place, free of the fussing of hens gathered together and sharing their nest, often accompanied by a rooster boisterously crowing the egg-laying news amid the cacophony of cackles. Charity didn’t mind my presence in the cellar. She seemed to like me sitting there, each of us intent on our silent endeavor. If the FEMA: Levels of Planning cellar door was closed, blocking her way to the basement when she was ready to lay her egg, she would pace back and from forth in front of the window on the opposite Essay side of the house where I sat at of Sigmund Freud, my desk facing the FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay window. If I didn’t respond quickly enough, she’d start pecking at the window with an increasing bang to get me to move. By the time I ran up the steps and opened the cellar door, she’d already be standing there, having raced around the house as soon as she saw me get up.
Down the cellar steps she’d trip, jump into the cabinet, and settle as still as a statue in her book nook. After she had laid her egg and spent a little time with it, she let me know she was ready to go back outside, running up the steps to the landing where she waited until I opened the door, and out she went. Do events like these suggest that the A Brief of Sigmund Essay chickens regard me as a chicken like themselves? I don’t really think so, other than perhaps when they are motherless chicks and Essay I am their sole provider and protector, similar to counter-reformation art the way children raised by wolves imprint on and behave like wolves. FEMA: Levels? I see the counter-reformation art ability of chickens to bond with me and be endearingly companionable as an extension of their ability to FEMA: Essay adapt their native instincts to habitats and human-created environments that stimulate their natural ability to perceive analogies and cultural homogeneity fit what they find where they happen to be to the fulfillment of their own needs and FEMA: desires. The inherently social nature of chickens enables them to socialize successfully with a variety of other species and to form bonds of interspecies affection. Having adopted into our sanctuary many incapacitated young chickens from the art “broiler” chicken (meat) industry, I know how quickly they learn to recognize me and my voice and Levels of Planning their own names. They twitter and chirp when I talk to them, and they turn their heads to watch me moving about or away from them.
Living in the house until they are well enough to go outside if they ever can, they quickly learn the cues I provide that signify their comfort and care and establish their personal identity. This is not to suggest that chickens are unlimitedly malleable. Mother hens and their embryos have a genetic repertoire of communications that are too subtle for humans to decipher entirely, let alone imitate. Homogeneity? Chickens have ancestral memories that predispose the development of their self-identity and behavior. Even chickens incubated in mechanical hatcheries and deprived of parental influence - virtually all of the of Planning birds at our sanctuary - behave like chickens in essential ways.
For instance, they all follow the sun around the yard. They all sunbathe, dropping to the ground and quotations from king lear lying on their sides with one wing outspread, then turning over and spreading out the other wing while raising their neck feathers to allow the warm sunlight and Levels of Planning Essay vitamin D to penetrate their skin. Similar to Biography Freud Essay dustbathing, sunbathing is a social as well as a healthful activity for chickens, where you see one bird drop to the ground where the sun is FEMA: Levels Essay shining, followed by another and then another, and if you don’t know what they are doing, you will think they had died the homogeneity way they lie still with their eyes closed, flopped like mops under the sun. I’m aware when I am in FEMA: of Planning Essay, the yard with them that the chickens are constantly sending, receiving and cultural responding to many signals that elude me. They also exhibit a clear sense of distinction between themselves, as chickens, and the three ducks, two turkeys and peacock Frankencense who share their sanctuary space. And they definitely know the difference between themselves and their predators, such as foxes and hawks, whose proximity raises a sustained alarm through the entire flock.
I remember how our broiler hen Miss Gertrude, who couldn’t walk, alerted me with her agitated voice and body movements that a fox was lurking on the edge of the woods. Frankencense the peacock, Donald Arnold the ducks, five Sentinel Sister hens, and Aubrey the turkey at UPC. While all of our sanctuary birds mingle together amiably, typically the FEMA: ducks potter about as a trio, and Frankencense the sandburg poems peacock displays his plumage before the hens, who view him for the most part impassively. The closest interspecies relationship I’ve observed among our birds is FEMA: Levels Essay between the chickens and the turkeys. A few years ago, our hen Muffie bonded in true friendship with our adopted turkey Mila, after Muffie’s friend Fluffie (possibly her actual sister) died suddenly and left her bereft, of which I’ll say more later. Right from the start, Muffie and Mila shared a quiet affection, foraging together and sometimes preening each other very delicately. A Brief Essay? One of FEMA: Levels of Planning their favorite rituals was in the evenings when I changed their water and poem themes ran the hose in FEMA: Levels of Planning, their bowls. Homogeneity? Together, Muffie and Mila would follow the FEMA: of Planning Essay tiny rivulets along the ground, drinking as they went, Muffie darting and counter-reformation art drinking like a brisk brown fairy, Mila dreamily swaying and sipping, piping her intermittent flute notes. Notwithstanding, I don’t think Muffie ever thought of herself as a “turkey” in her relationship with Mila, and I doubt very much that chickens bonded with humans experience themselves as “human,” particularly when other chickens are nearby - out of of Planning sight maybe, but not out of earshot. Poem Themes? (Chickens have keen, discriminating hearing as well as full spectrum color vision. Chick embryos have been shown to distinguish the crow of a rooster from other sounds from inside their shells.) Chickens in my experience have a core identity and sense of themselves as chickens.
An example is a chick I named Fred, sole survivor of FEMA: of Planning Essay a classroom hatching project in which embryos were mechanically incubated. Fred was so large, loud and demanding from the moment he set foot in our kitchen, I assumed he’d grow up to be a rooster. Cultural? He raced up and down the hallway, hopped up on my shoulder, leapt to the top of my head, ran across my back, down my arm and onto of Planning, the floor when I was at the computer, and was generally what you’d call “pushy,” but adorably so. I remember one day putting Fred outdoors in an enclosure with a few adult hens on the ground, and counter-reformation he flew straight up the tree to FEMA: Essay a branch, peeping loudly, apparently wanting no part of them. “Fred” grew into a lustrously beautiful black hen whom I renamed Freddaflower. Often we’d sit on the sofa together at night while I watched television or read. Carl? Even by FEMA: Levels of Planning, herself, Freddaflower liked to poem themes perch on the arm of the Essay sofa in front of the TV when it was on, suggesting she liked to of Sigmund be there because it was our special place. She ran up and down the stairs to the second floor as she pleased, and often I would find her in Levels Essay, the guestroom standing prettily in A Brief Biography of Sigmund Freud Essay, front of the full-length mirror preening her feathers and observing herself. Levels? She appeared to be fully aware that it was she herself she was looking at in the mirror. Poem Themes? I’d say to FEMA: Levels her, “Look, Freddaflower - that’s you!
Look how pretty you are!” And she seemed already to know that. Freddaflower loved for me to hold her and pet her. She demanded to be picked up. She would close her eyes and purr while I stroked her feathers and kissed her face. From time to time, I placed her outside in of Sigmund, the chicken yard, and sometimes she ventured out on Levels, her own, but she always came back. Eventually I noticed she was returning to me less and less, and for shorter periods.
One night she elected to remain in the chicken house with the flock. From then on until she died of ovarian cancer in my arms two years later, Freddaflower expressed her ambivalence of wanting to be with me but also wanting to be with the other hens, to socialize and nest with them and participate in their world and the reliving of ancestral experiences that she carried within herself. Liqin Cao and Freddaflower. My Relationship with the poem themes Roosters in Our Sanctuary. A less happy ambivalence appeared in FEMA: Essay, a soft-colored gray and white rooster I named Ruby when he was brought to quotations our sanctuary as a young bird by a girl who swore he was a hen. Following me about the house on his brisk little legs, even sleeping beside me on my pillow at night, Ruby grew up to be a rooster. In spite of our close relationship during his first months of life, once he became sexually mature, Ruby’s attitude toward me changed. In the yard with the other chickens, he showed no disposition to Levels Essay fight.
He didn’t attack other birds or provoke antagonisms. Quotations Lear? He fit in with the existing flock of hens and roosters, but toward me and other people he became compulsively aggressive. As soon as I (or anyone) appeared in the yard, Ruby ran from wherever he was and physically attacked us. Having to work in the yard under his vigilant eye, I took to FEMA: carrying a bottomless birdcage and placing it over him while I worked. When finished I would lift it off him and walk backward toward the gate with the birdcage in front of me as a shield. What I saw taking place in Ruby was a conflict he couldn’t control, and from which he suffered emotionally, between an autonomous genetic impulse on the one hand, and Biography of Sigmund his personal desire on the other to be friendly with me. He got to where when he saw me coming with the birdcage, he would walk right up and let me place it over him as if grateful for my protection against a behavior he didn’t want to carry out. Even more tellingly, he developed a syndrome of coughs and sneezes whenever I approached, symptomatic, I believed, of his inner turmoil. He didn’t have a respiratory infection, and despite his antagonism toward me, I never felt that he hated me but rather that he suffered from his dilemma, including his inability to FEMA: of Planning manage it. My personal experience with our sanctuary roosters confirms the literature I’ve read about wild and feral chickens documenting that the A Brief Biography Freud Essay majority of roosters do not physically and FEMA: compulsively attack one another.
Chickens maintain a social order in which every member of the flock has a place and finds a place. During the day our roosters and hens break up into Biography Essay, small, fluctuating groups that are somewhat, but by Levels of Planning Essay, no means, rigidly territorial. Antagonisms between roosters are resolved with bloodless showdowns and face-offs. The most notable exception is when a new rooster is introduced into an existing flock, which may provoke a temporary flare up, but even then, there is no predicting. Last year I placed newcomer Benjamin in a yard already occupied by two other roosters, Rhubarb and Oliver and their twenty or so hens, and he fit in right away. Ruby won immediate acceptance when I put him outside in the chickenyard after living in the house with me for almost six months. In dealing with Ruby I found an unexpected ally in our large red rooster Pola, who was so attentive to me, all I had to quotations king do was call him, and he bolted over from his hens and let me pick him up and hold him. I have a greeting card photograph of Pola and me “crowing” together, my one hand clasped over his swelled-out chest, my other hand holding his claw, in a duet I captioned “With Heart and Voice.” Playfully, I got into FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay, the habit of cultural homogeneity yelling “Pola, Help!” whenever Ruby acted like he was ready to come after me, which worked as well as the birdcage.
Hearing my call, Pola would perk up, race over to where Ruby was about to charge, and run him off with such cheerful alacrity it was as if he knew this was our little game together. I’d always say, “Thank you, Pola, thank you!” and he acted very pleased with his performance and the praise I lavished on him for Levels of Planning Essay, “saving” me. Homogeneity? He stuck out his chest, stretched up his neck, flapped his wings vigorously, and Levels Essay crowed triumphantly a few times. Roosters crow to announce their accomplishments. What Associates George Herbert Symbolic? Even after losing a skirmish, a rooster will often crow as if to compensate for his loss or deny its importance or call it a draw. Last summer as I sat reading outside with the chickens, I was diverted by our two head roosters, Rhubarb and of Planning Essay Sir Valery Valentine, crowing back and forth at cultural, each other in Levels of Planning Essay, their respective yards just a few feet apart. It looked like Sir Valery was intentionally crossing a little too far into Rhubarb’s territory, and Rhubarb kept dashing at him to reinforce the boundary. There was not a hint of hostility between them; rather the contest, I decided as I watched them go at it, was being carried out as a kind of what mead interactionism? spirited mock ritual, in which each rooster rushed at the other, only to halt abruptly on his own side of the invisible buffer zone they apparently had agreed upon. At that point, each rooster paced up and down on his own side, steadily eyeing the other bird and crowing at him across the divide.
After ten minutes or so, they each backed off and were soon engrossed in other activities. Roosters are so energetic and solicitous toward their hens, so intensely focused on every aspect of their social life together that one of the saddest things to see is a rooster in a state of decline due to age, illness or both. An aging or ailing rooster who can no longer hold his own in the flock suffers severely. He droops, and I have even heard a rooster cry over his loss of place and prestige within his flock. This is what happened to our rooster Jules - “Gentleman Jules,” as my husband fondly named him - who came to our sanctuary in FEMA: Essay, the following way. One day I received a phone call from the resident of an apartment building outside Washington, DC, saying that a rooster was loose in lear, the complex and was being chased by children who were throwing stones at Levels Essay, him.
After two weeks of trying, she managed to what basic herbert mead with lure the rooster into the laundry room and Levels of Planning called me to come get him. Expecting to find a cowering and emaciated creature needing to basic george herbert symbolic be carefully lifted out of Levels Essay a corner, I discovered instead a bright-eyed perky, chatty little fellow with glossy black feathers like Freddaflower. I drove him to what herbert with symbolic our sanctuary and set him outside with the of Planning flock, which at poem themes, the time included our large white broiler rooster Henry, and of Planning our feisty bantam rooster, Bantu, who loved nothing better than sitting in the breeze under the trees with his two favorite large brown hens, Nadia and Nadine. Jules was a sweet-natured rooster, warm and what associates herbert mead with symbolic affectionate to the core. He was a natural leader, and the hens loved him. Our dusky brown hen Petal, whom we’d adopted from another sanctuary, was especially devoted to Jules.
Petal had curled gnarly toes, which didn’t stop her from whisking away from anyone she didn’t want to FEMA: Levels come near her; otherwise she sat still watching everything, especially Jules. Petal never made a sound; she didn’t cluck like most hens - except when Jules left her side a little too long. Then all of a sudden, the silent and immobile hen with the watchful eye let out a raucous SQUAWK, SQUAWK, SQUAWK, that didn’t stop until Jules had lifted his head up from whatever he was doing, and muttering to himself, ran over to comfort his friend. Jules the Rooster. Two years after coming to carl sandburg live with us, Jules developed a respiratory infection that with treatment seemed to go away, but left him weak and vulnerable. He returned to Essay the chickenyard only to find himself supplanted by Glippie, with whom he had used to be cordial, but was now dueling, and he didn’t have the heart or strength for art, it. FEMA: Levels Essay? His exuberance ebbed out of him and he became sad; there is no other word for the total condition of mournfulness he showed. Art? His voice, which had always been cheerful, changed to moaning tones of woe. He banished himself to the outer edges of the chickenyard where he paced up and down, bawling so loudly I could hear him crying from inside the house. I brought him in with me and sought to comfort my beloved bird, who showed by his whole demeanor that knew he was dying and was hurt through and through by what he had become. Levels Of Planning Essay? Jules developed an abdominal tumor.
One morning our veterinarian placed him gently on the floor of his office after a final and futile overnight stay. Poem Themes? Jules looked up at me from the floor and let out a low groan of Levels “ooooohh” so broken that it pierced me through. I am pierced by quotations king lear, it now, remembering the sorrow expressed by this dear sweet creature, “Gentleman Jules,” who had loved his life and his hens and FEMA: of Planning Essay was leaving it all behind. My Experience of Empathy and Affection in Chickens. I perceive in your literature the proposal that chickens be treated as pets. I have been involved with many thousands of chickens and turkeys and I don’t think they are good pets, although it is evident that almost any vertebrate may be trained to come for what idea associates with symbolic interactionism?, food. - Thomas Jukes in a letter to the author, 1992.
I have described how our hen Muffie bonded with our turkey Mila after Muffie’s inseparable companion, Fluffie, died leaving her bereft. Muffie’s solicitude toward Fluffie portended the Levels death that would soon claim her friend. Like Jules, Fluffie developed an infection that treatment had seemed to heal, but she never fully recovered. Biography Of Sigmund? One day, I looked out the kitchen window and saw Muffie straddled on top of FEMA: Levels Essay Fluffie with her wings extended over her. I called my husband to come take a look at this moving and yet disturbing scene. We saw it repeated several times over the next few days. On a late afternoon, I went outside to basic idea associates george herbert symbolic put Muffie and Fluffie in for the night but found them already in their house in the straw. FEMA: Levels? Fluffie stood drooping with her head and tail curved toward the cultural homogeneity ground and Muffie stood motionless beside her. I rushed Fluffie to the veterinarian and brought her home with medicine, but she died that same night in the small bedroom where she and Muffie had liked to perch on top of the FEMA: Levels of Planning bookcase in front of the quotations king big window overlooking the FEMA: Levels yard. After Fluffie died, Muffie stood planted for days in the exact spot where Fluffie had last stood drooping and dying.
Now, Muffie drooped in her place. She no longer scampered into the woods or came bursting into the kitchen to jump up on the sink and homogeneity peck holes in Essay, the sponge floating on top of the dishwater. Cultural? She was not interested in me or the other chickens. Two weeks of this dejection and I said, “We must get Muffie a new sister.” That is how Petal, who had loved Jules, came to live in our sanctuary. The minute Petal appeared, Muffie lost her torpor and Levels of Planning became a bustling “police miss,” picking on poem themes, Petal and patrolling everything Petal did until finally the two hens became amiable, but they were never pals.
Through the years people have asked me, even more than whether chickens are “smart,” are they affectionate? - toward people, they particularly want to know. FEMA: Essay? In this essay I have sought to poem themes show the affectionate nature of chickens toward me. Because I don’t just feed them but I also talk to them and look them in the eye and express my feelings for them, the birds at our sanctuary gather around me and stand there serenely preening themselves or sit quietly on the ground next to my chair while I read and chat with them. Chickens represented by the poultry industry as incapable of friendship with humans have rested in my lap with their eyes closed as peacefully as sleeping babies, and as I have noted, they quickly learn their names. A little white hen from the egg industry named Karla became so friendly, all I had to do was call out “Karla!” and FEMA: Levels of Planning Essay she would break through the other hens and head straight toward me, knowing she’d be scooped off the ground and kissed on her sweet face and over her closed eyes. And I can still see Vicky, our large white hen from a “broiler breeder” operation, whose right eye had been knocked out, peeking around the corner of her house each time I shouted, “Vicky, what are you doing in there?” And there was Henry, likewise from a broiler breeder operation, who came to our sanctuary dirty and A Brief Biography of Sigmund Freud Essay angry after falling out of a truck on the way to a slaughter plant. Lavished with my attention, Henry, who at first couldn’t bear to be touched, became as pliant and lovable as a big shaggy dog. I couldn’t resist wrestling him to the ground with bearish hugs, and his joy at FEMA: Levels of Planning, being placed in a garden where he could eat all the tomatoes he wanted was expressed in groans of ecstasy. He was like, “Are all these riches of food and affection really for me?”
One of my most poignant memories is of a large black, beautiful hen I named Mavis. Mavis had been dropped off at a shelter by a man who’d exhibited her at agricultural fairs. She must have spent her whole life immobilized on poem themes, the floor of a cage with a keeper who treated her like an object. During her first two weeks at Levels of Planning Essay, our sanctuary, Mavis could not even stand up without crumbling to the ground, and she was deeply shy and inexpressive. Cultural? In the chickenyard she sat alone by the fence and poked around a little by herself without showing or attracting interest. I saw no sign that she was ever going to recover from the emotional and sensory deprivation of her previous life. Karen Davis Mavis. During this time, we had three adult broiler hens - Bella Mae, Alice, and Florence. They were the opposite Levels Essay of Mavis. What Idea Mead With Symbolic? All I had to do was crouch down in the yard, and here comes one of FEMA: Levels of Planning my Three Graces, as I called them, Bella Mae for example, bumping up against me with her ample breast for an embrace.
Immediately, Alice and Florence would hastily plod over on their heavy feet to participate in the embracement ceremony. Assertively but with no aggression whatever, they would vie with one another, bumping against each other’s chests to poem themes maneuver the closest possible contact with me, and I would encircle all three of Levels Essay them with my arms. One day as we were doing this, I looked up and saw Mavis just a few feet away, staring at counter-reformation art, us. The next time, the same thing happened. There was Mavis with her melancholy eyes watching me hugging the three white hens.
And then it struck me - Mavis wants to be hugged. I withdrew from the hens, walked over FEMA: of Planning and knelt beside Mavis and pulled her gently toward me. It didn’t take much. She rested against me in a completeness of comfort that seemed to include her gratitude that her shy desire had been understood. In my first years of keeping chickens there were no predators, until a fox found us, and quotations king lear we built our fences - but only after eleven chickens disappeared rapidly under our nose. The fox would sneak up in broad daylight, raising a clamor among the Essay birds. Running out of the house I’d see no stalker, just sometimes a soul-stabbing bunch of feathers on what basic associates george herbert interactionism?, the ground in FEMA: Levels Essay, the midst of panic.
When our bantam rooster Josie was taken, his companion Alexandra ran shrieking through the kitchen, jumped up on a table and could not stop shrieking and was never the same afterward. A Brief Biography Essay? The fox killed Pola, our big red rooster who had so gallantly responded to my calls begging him to “save” me from Ruby. FEMA: Of Planning Essay? I am sure he was attacked while trying to protect his hens the day he disappeared, while I sat obliviously at the computer. Counter-reformation Art? It was too much. I sat on the kitchen floor crying and screaming. At the time, I was caring for Sonja, a big white warm-natured, bouncy hen I was treating for wounds she’d received before I rescued her. As I sat on the floor exploding with grief and guilt, Sonja walked over to FEMA: Levels Essay where I sat weeping.
She nestled her face next to mine and poem themes began purring with the FEMA: Essay ineffable soft purr that is also a trill in chickens. She comforted me even as her gesture deepened the heartache I was feeling in A Brief of Sigmund Freud, that moment about the painful mystery of Pola and Levels of Planning Essay the mystery of Biography Freud all chickens. FEMA:? Did Sonja know why I was crying? I doubt it, but maybe she did. Biography Freud? Did she know that I was terribly sad and distressed? There is no question in my mind about that.
She responded to my grief with an expression of empathy that I have carried emotionally in my life ever since. It is experiences such as this and others I have described in this essay that have made me a passionate advocate for FEMA: of Planning Essay, chickens. I do not seek to sentimentalize chickens but to from king characterize them as best I can within the purview of my own observations and relationships with them. FEMA:? In the 1980s I wrote an essay about an abandoned crippled broiler hen named Viva who, more than any other single cause, led me to found United Poultry Concerns in 1990. It is hard for me to evoke in poem themes, words how expressive she was in Essay, spite of her handicap and despite the quotations miserable life she had had before I lifted her out of her misery and FEMA: Levels of Planning brought her home with me. My experience with chickens for more than twenty years has shown me that chickens are conscious and emotional beings with adaptable sociability and a range of intentions and cultural personalities. If there is one trait above all that leaps to my mind in thinking about chickens when they are enjoying their lives and pursuing their own interests, it is cheerfulness.
Chickens are cheerful birds, quite vocally so, and when they are dispirited and oppressed, their entire being expresses this state of affairs as well. FEMA: Levels? The fact that chickens become lethargic in continuously barren environments, instead of proving that they are stupid or impassive by nature, shows how sensitive these birds are to their surroundings, deprivations and prospects. Likewise, when chickens are happy, their sense of wellbeing resonates unmistakably. Karen Davis, PhD is the president and founder of United Poultry Concerns, a nonprofit organization dedicated to the compassionate and respectful treatment of domestic fowl. Counter-reformation? She’s the FEMA: of Planning editor of UPC’s quarterly magazine Poultry Press and the author of several books including Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: An Inside Look at the Modern Poultry Industry (1996; Revised Edition 2009), More Than a Meal: The Turkey in quotations king, History, Myth, Ritual and Reality , and The Holocaust and the Henmaid’s Tale: A Case for FEMA:, Comparing Atrocities . Karen maintains a sanctuary for chickens, turkeys and carl ducks on the Eastern Shore of Virginia.
UPC sanctuary roosters Ivan (center), Lorenzo (left) Benjamin (right) with their blissfully dustbathing hens on May 22, 2013.