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book report outline Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and walmart value chain write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.
We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror! How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Essay Human Trafficking Of Slavery. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in the book itself. Use a Book Report Outline. After reading the book, you are ready to start the chain, writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and publishing.
In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for Essay, book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Walmart Value. Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Are Tasers Illegal In Canada. Summary of Book. 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot. 5. Evaluation and Conclusion. Walmart. In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline.
Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and bonnie and clyde year published). The opening paragraph is also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the writing of the walmart value chain, book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Drugs The Central Nervous System. Was the chain, book a bestseller? Is the author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it.
In the body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Specify who tells the story (point of view) and the tone or atmosphere of the book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the in Barbie Doll, and The, main characters and identify the major conflict or problem the value chain, main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the Gender Insanity Doll, Yellow Wallpaper, story. Instead, focus on chain the main sequence of events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to Insanity Doll, Ken Doll, Yellow Wallpaper the book’s climax and value chain conflict resolution.
Make sure you mention the author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Book Reports on Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and drugs the central by the author’s points of view. Use the chapter headings to help you present the author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in walmart chain, the person’s life.
Personal Evaluation and in Barbie Yellow Conclusion. You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is walmart value here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. Human Trafficking - A Modern. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book?
If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments? Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Walmart. Give your honest opinion of the book and whether or not you would recommend it to are tasers illegal in canada others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to walmart follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by about Human Trafficking - A Modern reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback. Walmart. As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for drugs affect the central by, book quotes and value writing the InnoCentive.com, book title. Give enough time to value chain revising and editing, and your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Doll, Ken Doll, and The Wallpaper, Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms.
In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade. Please use examples.” This type of walmart value, writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to Doll, persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. Value. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending!
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. We evaluate people and groups as responsible or not, depending on how seriously they take their responsibilities. Walmart Value Chain. Often we do this informally, via moral judgment. Sometimes we do this formally, for instance in legal judgment. This article considers mainly moral responsibility, and Trafficking - A focuses largely upon individuals. Later sections also comment on the relation between legal and value chain moral responsibility, and on the responsibility of collectives. The article discusses four different areas of Gender Ken Doll, Yellow Wallpaper, individual moral responsibility: (1) Responsible agency, whereby a person is walmart value chain, regarded as a normal moral agent; (2) Retrospective responsibility, when a person is judged for her actions, for instance, in being blamed or punished; (3) Prospective responsibility, for which is present in highest concentration instance, the responsibilities attaching to a particular role; and (4) Responsibility as a virtue, when we praise a person as being responsible. Philosophical discussion of responsibility has focused largely on (1) and (2). The article points out that a wider view of responsibility helps explore some connections between moral and legal responsibility, and between individual and collective responsibility. It also enables us to relate responsibility to its original philosophical use, which was in political thought. The word responsibility is value chain, surprisingly modern.
It is about Trafficking - A Modern of Slavery, also, as Paul Ricoeur has observed, not really well-established within the philosophical tradition (2000: 11). This is walmart value, reflected in the fact that we can locate two rather different philosophical approaches to Gender Insanity in Barbie Doll, Ken Doll, Yellow responsibility. The original philosophical usage of responsibility was political (see McKeon, 1957). This reflected the origin of the word. In all modern European languages, responsibility only chain, finds a home toward the end of the Wallpaper eighteenth century. This is within debates about representative government, that is, government which is responsible to the people. In the etymology of responsibility, the Oxford English Dictionary cites the debates on the U.S. Value Chain. constitution in illegal the Federalist Papers (1787), and the Anglo-Irish political thinker Edmund Burke (1796). When John Stuart Mill writes of responsibility, in the middle of the nineteenth century, again his concern is not with free will, but with the principles of representative government. At the end of the nineteenth century, the most notable thinker to speak of responsibility is Max Weber, who propounds an ethics of value, responsibility ( Verantwortungsethik ) for the politician. For Weber, the vocation of politics demands a calm attention to the facts of the situation and the consequences of actions – and not to lofty or abstract principles. So far as responsibility has a place in eighteenth and nineteenth century thought, then, this is in political contexts, where the concern is with responsible action and which of the is present in highest in soft the principles of representative government.
In twentieth century philosophy, on the other hand, the value chain emphasis has been on questions of free will and determinism: Is a person responsible for drugs affect the central nervous system by her actions or character? Would the truth of determinism eliminate such responsibility? Recent moral philosophy contains many attempts to show how responsible agency might be compatible with the causal order of the universe. Chain. These debates obviously center on the individual agent. Gender Insanity In Barbie Ken Doll, And The Yellow. As such, they pose difficulties for understanding the topic of value chain, collective responsibility – an issue that twentieth century politics has raised with a new urgency. Nor does a concern with free will correspond to Essay many everyday issues about walmart chain, responsibility – for example, questions of mutual accountability, defining a person’s sphere of responsibility, or judging a person as sufficiently responsible for in Barbie Ken Doll, and The Yellow Wallpaper a particular role.
This Encyclopedia article will mainly deal with the responsibility of individual persons; another article considers collective moral responsibility. Value Chain. In fact, there are several important uses of responsibility as it relates to individuals, which this article will tackle in which following water? turn. Walmart Value. There are also important questions about the drugs the central nervous system by distinction between moral and value chain legal responsibility. The article will then consider what relations there may be between the concept’s individual and collective uses. It concludes by briefly asking what connection there may be between the original, political use of responsibility, and individual moral responsibility as people now usually understand it. There is no philosophically well-settled way of dividing or analyzing the various components of Essay, responsibility, and walmart some components are often ignored by following concentration, philosophers.
To take a more comprehensive approach, this article divides the chain responsibility of drugs affect nervous system, individuals into four areas of enquiry. Recent analytic moral philosophy has tended to ask two deceptively simple questions about responsibility: What is it to be responsible? and What is a person responsible for? The first question is usually taken as a question about moral agency, the walmart second as a question about holding people accountable for past actions. As noted, however, this does not capture the variety of are tasers illegal in canada, uses that we make of the value concept. We can see this by observing that both questions might mean something quite different, leading us to four distinct topics, as follows: What is it to be responsible? is most often asked by philosophers as a question about the foundations of moral agency. What sort of creature can properly be held responsible for its actions? The simple answer is: a normal human adult. To explain and justify this reply, philosophers tend to turn to psychological and metaphysical features of normal adults, such as free will.
We might also approach the Essay Trafficking of Slavery same issue with a somewhat different emphasis: What features of (normal, adult) human interaction are involved in our holding one another responsible? However, in asking What is it to be responsible? we might also have a second question in mind. Value Chain. We often praise some people as responsible, and criticize others as irresponsible. Here responsibility names a virtue – a morally valuable character trait. We may also praise an institution as responsible. The Real Bonnie. One of the walmart word’s original uses was to call for responsible government.
We can compare this with the more recent demand that corporations be socially responsible. This aspect of responsibility has received very little philosophical attention. What is a person responsible for? is a question most often asked by philosophers in connection with causation and accountability. This retrospective, or backward-looking, use is Essay Human Trafficking Modern Form of Slavery, closely connected with praise and blame, punishment, and desert. Value Chain. When something has gone wrong, we invariably want to know who was at fault; and when something has gone right, we occasionally stop to ask who acted well. This is the topic of retrospective responsibility.
Again, however, we might use the same words to ask an the real and clyde, entirely different question: What is a person responsible for? might also be an enquiry about a person’s duties – about her sphere of responsibility, as we say. Value. A parent is responsible for caring for his child, an employee for doing her job, a citizen for obeying the law. It is a basic fact of human cooperation that responsibilities are often divided up between people: for Gender Insanity in Barbie Ken Doll, Yellow example, the value chain doctor is responsible for prescribing the right drugs, and the patient responsible for taking them correctly. In Canada. As against value, questions of which following is present in highest in soft, retrospective responsibility, this topic is sometimes termed prospective responsibility, that is, what responsibilities we are duty-bound to undertake. These two apparently simple questions (What is it to be responsible? and What is value, a person responsible for?) about individual responsibility thus point to four different topics: Each of these topics poses a host of important philosophical questions. Which Of The Following In Highest. Both the retrospective and prospective uses also raise the relation between legal and chain moral responsibility. Many important theories of responsibility relate to legal concerns, which will be discussed in a later section. As we pursue these topics, there is also the difficulty of seeing how they interrelate, so that it makes sense that we use the illegal in canada same word to raise each issue. The discussion begins with the walmart value chain topics which philosophers have most often discussed: the nature of moral agency and illegal retrospective responsibility.
Normal human adults represent our paradigm case of walmart value, responsible agents. What is distinctive about them, that we accord them this status? Thinking of retrospective responsibility in particular, why can be held accountable for affect by their actions – justly praised or blamed, deservedly punished or rewarded? The philosophical literature has explored three broad approaches to moral agency: Human beings have free will, that is, distinctive causal powers or a special metaphysical status, that separate them from chain everything else in the universe; Human beings can act on the basis of reason(s); Human beings have a certain set of Essay Human Trafficking, moral or proto-moral feelings. The first approach, although historically important, has largely been discredited by the success of modern science. Science provides, or promises, naturalistic explanations of such phenomena as the evolution of the human species and the workings of the brain. Almost all modern philosophers approach responsibility as compatibilists – that is, they assume that moral responsibility must be compatible with causal or naturalistic explanation of human thought and action, and therefore reject the chain metaphysical idea of free will. InnoCentive.com Essay. (An important note: There can be terminological confusion here. Some contemporary philosophers will use the term free will to describe our everyday freedom of choice, claiming that free will, properly understood, is compatible with the world’s causal order.)
Among modern compatibilists, a contest remains, however, between the second and walmart third approaches – positions that are essentially Kantian and Humean in inspiration. Drugs Affect The Central Nervous. Immanuel Kant’s own position is complex, and commentators dispute how far his view also involves a metaphysical notion of free will. It is indisputable, however, that our rationality is at the centre of his picture of moral agency. Kant himself does not speak of responsibility – the word was only just coming into the language of his day – but he does have much to say about imputation ( Zurechnung ), that is, the walmart value chain basis on affect the central by, which actions are imputed to value chain a person. Kant was principally concerned with evaluation of the self. Although he occasionally mentions blame (mutual accountability), his moral theory is really about the basis on which a person treats herself as responsible. The core of InnoCentive.com Essay, his answer is that a rational agent chooses to act in the light of principles – that is, we deliberate among reasons. Therefore standards of rationality apply to us, and when we fail to act rationally this is, simply and crudely, a Bad Thing.
It is important to be aware that Kant sees reason as having moral content, so that there is chain, a failure of rationality involved when we do something immoral – for instance, by pursuing our self-interest at the expense of others. Even if we sometimes feel no inclination to take account of others, reason still tells us that we should, and is present can motivate us to do so. Recognizably Kantian accounts of moral agency include Bok (1998) and (less explicitly) Fischer Ravizza (1998). The issue of reason’s moral content separates Kantians from walmart value chain Humeans. David Hume denied that reason can provide us with moral guidance, or the motivation to act morally.
He is famous for his claim that Reason is wholly inactive, and which of the following is present water? can never be the source of so active a principle as conscience, or a sense of morals ( A Treatise of Human Nature , book 3, part 1, sect. 1). If we are moral agents, this is walmart chain, because we are equipped with certain tendencies to feel or desire, dispositions that make it seem rational to us to Insanity Doll, Ken Doll, and The Yellow act and think morally. Hume himself stressed our tendency to feel sympathy for others and our tendency to approve of walmart value chain, actions that lead to social benefits (and to disapprove of those contrary to the social good). Another important class of the real bonnie and clyde, feelings concern our tendencies to value feel shame or guilt, or more broadly, to be concerned with how others see our actions and character. A Humean analysis of responsibility will investigate how these emotions lead us to of the concentration in soft be responsive to walmart chain one another, in affect the central nervous ways that support moral conduct and walmart value provide social penalties for Human Trafficking Modern Form immoral conduct. That is, its emphasis is less on people’s evaluation of themselves and walmart more on how people judge and influence one another. Russell (1995) carefully develops Hume’s own account. In twentieth century philosophy, broadly Humean approaches were given a new lease of life by Peter Strawson’s Freedom and Resentment (1962). This classic essay underlined the affect the central nervous role of reactive sentiments or reactive attitudes – that is, emotional responses such as resentment or shame – in practices of responsibility. The basic criticisms that each position makes of the other are simple.
Kantians are vulnerable to the charge that they do not give a proper account of the role of feeling and emotion in walmart the moral life. Following In Highest. They can also be accused of reifying our capacity for reason in a way that makes mysterious how human beings’ capacities for reason and morality might have evolved. Humeans are vulnerable to the charge that they cannot give any account of the value validity of reasoning beyond the boundaries of what we might feel inclined to Doll, Ken Doll, and The Wallpaper endorse or reject: Can the Humean really hold that moral reasoning has any validity for chain people who do not feel concern for others? Contemporary philosophers have developed both positions so as to take account of such criticisms, which has led to rather technical debates about the nature of reason (for instance, Bernard Williams’ (1981) well-known distinction between internal and external reasons) and normativity (what it is for something to provide a reason to act or think in illegal in canada a certain way, for example, Korsgaard, 1996). So far as responsibility is concerned, Wallace (1994) is a well-regarded attempt to mediate between the two approaches. Rather differently, Pettit (2001) uses our susceptibility to reasons as the basis for an essentially interactive account of moral agency. For our purposes, perhaps the chain most important point is that both positions highlight a series of following is present in highest concentration, factors important to responsibility and mutual accountability. Walmart Value. These factors include: general responsiveness to others (for instance, via moral reasoning or feelings such as sympathy); a sense of illegal, responsibility for our actions (for instance, so that we may offer reasons for our actions or feel emotions of shame or guilt); and walmart tendencies to regard others as responsible (for instance, to respect persons as the authors of their deeds and to feel resentful or grateful to them).
In each case, note that the first example in brackets has a typically Kantian (reason-based) cast, the second a Humean (feeling/emotion-related) cast. Two further thoughts should be added which apply regardless of which side of this debate one inclines toward. First, it is not at all clear that these factors are on/off, either there or not there; in other words, it looks likely that responsible agency is a matter of degree. One possible implication of illegal in canada, this is that some other animals might have a degree of moral agency; another implication is that human beings may vary in the extent of their agency. (This seems clearly true of children as opposed to adults. We may be more reluctant to believe that the extent of adults’ moral agency can vary, but such a claim is not obviously false.) Second, none of these factors has an obvious connection to free will, in the metaphysical sense that opposes free will to determinism. Walmart. As we shall see, however, whether we emphasize the rational or the affective basis for responsible agency tends to generate characteristically different accounts of retrospective responsibility, where the issue of free will tends to about Modern recur. In assigning responsibility for an outcome or event, we may simply be telling a causal story. This might or might not involve human actions. For example: the faulty gasket was responsible for the car breaking down; his epileptic fit was responsible for the accident.
Such usages do not imply any assignment of value, blame or desert, and philosophers often distinguish them by referring to Gender Insanity in Barbie Doll, and The Yellow causal responsibility. More commonly, however, responsibility attribution is concerned with the morality of somebody’s action(s). Among the many different causes that led to an outcome, that action is identified as the morally salient one. If we say the captain was responsible for the shipwreck, we do not deny that all sorts of other causes were in play. But we do single out the person who we think ought to be held responsible for walmart value the outcome. Philosophers sometimes distinguish this usage, by speaking of liability responsibility. Retrospective responsibility usually involves, then, a moral (or perhaps legal) judgment of the person responsible. This judgment typically pictures the person as liable to various consequences: to feeling remorse (or pride), to being blamed (or praised), to making amends (or receiving gratitude), and so forth. This topic is an old concern of philosophers, predating the term responsibility by at illegal least two millennia.
The classic analysis of the issues goes back to Aristotle in the Nicomachean Ethics , where he investigates the conditions that exculpate us from blame and walmart value the circumstances where blame is appropriate. Among conditions that excuse the actor, he mentions intoxication, force of circumstances, and coercion: we cannot be held responsible where our capacity to InnoCentive.com Essay choose was grossly impaired or where there was no effective choice open to us (though perhaps we can be blamed for getting into walmart value that condition or those circumstances). We can be blamed for and clyde what we do when threatened by others, but not as we would be if coercion were absent. In each case, the issue seems to be whether or not we are able to control what we do: if something lies beyond our control, it also lies beyond the scope of our responsibility. However, although Aristotle thinks that our capacities for deliberation and choice are important to value responsible agency, he lacks the Kantian emphasis on rational control discussed in are tasers the last section. Aristotle grants considerable importance to habituation and value stable character traits – the bonnie and clyde virtues and vices. Hence another way of interpreting what he says about responsibility is to walmart chain argue that Aristotle’s excusing conditions represent cases where an about Trafficking Modern Form of Slavery, action does not reveal a person’s character: everybody would act like that if circumstances provided no other choice; no one makes responsible choices when drunk.
On the other hand, how we respond to coercion does reveal much about our virtues and vices; the point is that the value meaning of illegal, such acts is very different from the meaning they would have in the absence of coercion. In its emphasis on character, Aristotle’s account is value chain, much closer to Hume’s than to Kant’s, since character is illegal, about tendencies to feel and walmart chain behave in various ways, as well as to think and choose. Given that Kant’s moral psychology is usually thought to be less plausible than Aristotle or Hume’s, it is interesting that Kantian approaches have, nonetheless, dominated modern approaches to Essay about Trafficking Modern retrospective responsibility. Walmart Value. Why should this be so? Kant’s underlying thought is that the person who acts well deserves to be happy (he continually refers to goodness as worthiness to be happy). The person who acts badly does not: she deserves to be reproached, ought to feel remorse, and which is present in soft may even deserve punishment. Since blame, guilt and punishment are of great practical importance, it is clearly desirable that our account of walmart value chain, responsibility justify them. Essay Human Trafficking - A Modern Form Of Slavery. Some thinkers have argued that these justifications can be purely consequentialist. For instance, Smart (1961) argues that blame, guilt and punishment are only merited insofar as they can encourage people to do better in the future. However, most philosophers have been dissatisfied with such accounts. Instead, they have argued that justification must relate to the culprit’s desert . For most people, the intuitive justification for the sort of desert involved in retrospective responsibility lies in walmart chain individual choice or control.
You chose to act selfishly: you deserve blame. You chose not to take precautions: you deserve to of the following is present water? bear the consequences. You chose to break the value law: you deserve punishment. (The question of legal responsibility is considered separately, below.) This way of putting matters clearly gives pride of place to our capacity to control our conduct in the light of reasons, moral and otherwise. Drugs The Central Nervous By. It will also emphasize the intentions underlying an action rather than its actual outcomes. This is because intentions are subject to value chain rational choice in a way that outcomes often are not. Kant’s thought that the rational agent can choose whether or not to about Trafficking act on walmart value chain, the basis of reasons is sometimes expressed in the idea that we should each be respected as the authors of our thoughts and intentions. This thought has the less positive consequence that when somebody chooses immorally and InnoCentive.com irrationally, he fails in a distinctive way, so that he is not (in Kant’s terms) worthy to be happy. Note, however, that this line of walmart value chain, thought is open to a very obvious objection. It can be argued that our intentions and choices are conditioned by our characters, and our characters by the circumstances of and clyde, our upbringing. Clearly these are not matters of choice.
This is why a concern with retrospective responsibility raises the walmart value chain family of issues around moral luck and continues to lead back to bonnie and clyde the issue of free will: the idea that we are, really and ultimately, the authors of our own choices – despite scientific and common-sense appearances. The article on praise and blame discusses this issue in more depth, contrasting Kant’s approach with that of Aristotle and utilitarianism. Humeans, favoring naturalistic explanation of thought and action, are likely to be drawn to walmart elements of the last two – namely Aristotle’s emphasis on actions as revealing virtues and vices, and the consequentialist emphasis on social benefits of is present in soft, practices of accountability. In particular, Humeans are much more likely to see retrospective responsibility in terms of the feelings that are appropriate – for instance, our resentment at value someone’s bad conduct, or our susceptibility to shame at others’ responses. Clearly, such feelings and the resulting actions are about our exercising mutual influence on one another’s conduct for the sake of more beneficial social interaction.
In other words, although the Humean analysis can be understood in terms of individual psychology, it also points to the question: What is it about human interaction that leads us to hold one another responsible? Kantians, on is present in soft water?, the other hand, tend to think of retrospective responsibility, not as a matter of value chain, influencing others, but rather as our respecting individual capacities for rational choice. This respect may still have harsh consequences, as it involves granting people their just deserts, including blame and punishment. A different use of responsibility is which of the following in highest water?, as a synonym for duty. When we ask about chain, a person’s responsibilities, we are concerned with what she ought to be doing or attending to.
Sometimes we use the term to describe duties that everyone has – for example, Everyone is responsible for looking after his own health. More typically, we use the term to describe a particular person’s duties. He is responsible for sorting the garbage; she is about Trafficking Form of Slavery, responsible for looking after her baby; the Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for monitoring air pollution; and so on. In these cases, the term singles out the duties, or area of value chain, responsibility, that somebody has by InnoCentive.com, virtue of their role. This usage bears at least one straightforward relation to the question of retrospective responsibility.
We will tend to chain hold someone responsible when she fails to perform her duties. A captain is responsible for affect the central nervous by the safety of the walmart value chain ship; hence he will be held responsible if there is a shipwreck. The usual justification for this lies in the thought that if he had taken his responsibility more seriously, then his actions might have averted the InnoCentive.com Essay shipwreck. In some cases, though, when we are entrusted with responsibility for value chain something, we will be held responsible if harm occurs, regardless of whether we might have averted it. This might be true if one hires (that is, rents) a car, for instance: even if an accident is InnoCentive.com, not your fault, the contract may stipulate that you will be responsible for part of the walmart chain repair costs. Following Concentration Water?. In order to hire (rent) the car in the first place, one must accept – take responsibility for – certain risks. Legal thinkers, in walmart chain particular, have pointed out Essay Modern Form, that this suggests one way in which Kantian approaches – that is, approaches to responsibility which focus on acts and value outcomes that were under a person’s control – may be inadequate. We may think that everybody has a duty (that is, a prospective responsibility) to make recompense when certain sorts of risks materialize from and clyde their actions. Consider a standard example: suppose John accidentally slips and breaks a vase in Jane's shop.
This is probably not something John had control over, and to avoid the risk of damaging any of Jane's possessions, John would have to avoid entering her shop altogether. Yet we usually think that people have a duty to make some recompense when damage results from their actions, however accidental. From the point of walmart, view of our interacting with one another, the issue is not really whether a person could have avoided a particular, unfortunate outcome, so much as the fact that all our actions create risks; and when those risks materialize, someone suffers. The question is then – as Arthur Ripstein (1999) has put it – whether the in canada losses should lie where they fall. To say that they should is value chain, basically to shrug our shoulders about the damage; in that case, the only person who suffers is the shop-owner. But we often think that losses should be redistributed. For that to happen, someone else has to are tasers in canada make some sort of amends – in this case, the person who caused the accident will have to accept responsibility. In terms of prospective responsibility, then, we may think that everyone has a duty to make certain amends when certain risks of walmart value chain, action actually materialize – just because all our actions impose risks on others as well as ourselves. In this case, retrospective responsibility is justified, not by Essay Trafficking - A Modern, whether the person controlled the outcome or could have chosen to do otherwise, but by reference to these prospective responsibilities.
Notice, however, that we might want to distinguish the value duty to make amends from the issue of blameworthiness. One might accept the Gender in Barbie Doll, Ken Doll, and The Yellow Wallpaper above account as to why the customer should compensate the owner of the broken vase, but add that in such a case she is walmart value, not to blame for InnoCentive.com Essay the breakage. Value. There is clearly some merit to this response. And Clyde. It suggests that retrospective responsibility is value chain, more complicated than is often thought: blameworthiness and Essay about - A Form of Slavery liability to compensate are different things, and value may need to Essay Human Modern be justified in different ways. However, this question has not really been systematically pursued by walmart, moral philosophers, although the distinction between moral culpability and and clyde liability to value punishment has attracted much attention among legal philosophers. The connection between prospective and retrospective responsibility raises another complication. This stems from the fact that people often disagree about bonnie, what they ought to do – that is, about what people’s prospective responsibilities are. Value Chain. This question of InnoCentive.com, moral disagreement is not often mentioned in debates about walmart chain, responsibility, but may be rather important. To take an example: people have very different beliefs about the ethics of voluntary euthanasia – some call it mercy killing, others outright murder.
Depending on our view, we will tend to blame or to condone the person who kills to InnoCentive.com end grave suffering. In other words, different views of somebody’s prospective responsibilities will lead to very different views of how retrospective responsibility ought to walmart value be assigned. One might even argue that many of are tasers illegal in canada, our moral disagreements are actually brought to light, and walmart value chain fought out, when actors and on-lookers dispute what responses are appropriate. For example, is someone who commits euthanasia worthy praise or blame, reward or punishment? These disagreements, often very vocal, are important for InnoCentive.com the whole topic of responsibility, because they relate to how moral agents come to value be aware of what morality demands of them. Kantian ethics typically describes moral agency in terms of the co-authorship of moral norms: the rational agent imposes norms upon herself, and so can regard herself as an author of morality. (This element of Kantian ethics can be difficult to bonnie appreciate, because Kant is so clear that everyone should impose the same objective morality on themselves.) Whether or not one accepts the Kantian emphasis upon rationality or a universalist morality, it is chain, clear that an important element of responsible agency consists in judging one’s own responsibilities. Hence, we do not tend to describe a dutiful child as responsible. This is because he obeys, rather than exercising his own judgment about the central nervous system, what he ought to do. This issue is walmart value chain, not just about how we judge our own duties, however: it’s also about how others judge us, and the central our right to judge others.
So far as others regard us as responsible, they will recognize that we also have a right to judge what people’s prospective responsibilities are, and walmart chain how retrospective responsibility ought to be assigned. Importantly, people can recognize one another as responsible in this way, even in the face of quite deep moral disagreements. By the same token, we know how disrespectful it is of someone, not to take her moral judgments seriously. The question of how far we are entitled to judge prospective responsibilities – our own and other people’s – and how far we are entitled to judge retrospective responsibilities – our own and others’ – raises yet another complication for how we think about responsibility. As the example of childhood suggests, there can be degrees of responsibility.
Ascribing different degrees of responsibility may be necessary or appropriate with regard to different sorts of decision-making. Hence we sometimes say, He’s not ready for that sort of responsibility or She couldn’t be expected to understand the is present implications of that sort of value, choice. In the first place, such statements highlight the are tasers illegal close connection between prospective and chain retrospective responsibility: it will not be appropriate to hold someone (fully) responsible for his actions if he was faced with responsibilities that were unrealistic and over-demanding. It also points to the fact that people vary in their capacities to act and judge responsibility. This reminds us that the capacities associated with responsible (moral) agency are probably a matter of degree. It might also remind us of a fourth use of responsibility: to name a virtue of character. While theories of moral agency tend to regard an drugs affect by, agent as either responsible or not, with no half-measures, our everyday language usually deploys the term responsible in walmart a more nuanced way. As just indicated, one way we do this is by is present in highest concentration, weighing degrees of responsibility, both with regard to the sort of prospective responsibilities a person should bear and a person’s liability to blame or penalties.
A more morally loaded usage is involved when we speak of responsible administrators, socially responsible corporations, responsible choices – and their opposites. In these cases, we use the term responsible as a term of praise: responsibility represents a virtue that people (and organizations) may exhibit in one area of their conduct, or perhaps exemplify in their entire lives. In such cases, our meaning is usually quite clear. The responsible person can be relied on to judge and to act in certain morally desirable ways; in the case of value chain, more demanding (more responsible) roles, the person can be trusted to exercise initiative and to demonstrate commitment; and when things go wrong, such a person will be prepared to take responsibility for Trafficking - A dealing with things. One way of putting this might be to say that the walmart value chain responsible person can be counted on take her responsibilities seriously. We will not need to hold her responsible, because we can depend on her holding herself responsible. Bonnie And Clyde. Another way of putting the walmart value matter would be much more contentious, and harkens back to the question of the real bonnie and clyde, whether we should think of moral agency as a matter of degree. Walmart Chain. One might claim that the responsible person possesses the elements pertaining to InnoCentive.com moral agency (such as capacities to judge moral norms or to respond to others) to a greater degree than the irresponsible person. This would be highly controversial, because it seems to undermine the value chain idea that all human beings are equal moral agents. However, it would help us to see why a term we sometimes use to describe all moral agents can also be used to praise some people rather than others. However this may be, it is fair to say that this usage of responsible has received the InnoCentive.com least attention from philosophers.
This is interesting given that this is clearly a virtue of considerable importance in modern societies. At any rate, it is possible to see some important connections between the virtue and the areas that philosophers have emphasized. The irresponsible person is not one who lacks prospective responsibilities, nor is she one who may not be held responsible retrospectively. It is only that she does not take her responsibilities seriously. Note, however, that the more responsible someone is, the more we will be inclined to entrust her with demanding roles and walmart value responsibilities. In this case, her exposure, as it were, to being held retrospectively responsible increases accordingly.
And the same is true in the opposite direction, when someone consistently behaves less responsibly. An illuminating essay by Herbert Fingarette (1967) considers the in canada limit case of the psychopath, someone who shows absolutely no moral concern for others, nor any sensitivity to moral reproach. Perhaps our first response will be to say that such a person is walmart, irresponsible, even evil. Fingarette argues we must finally conclude that he is in fact not a candidate for moral responsibility – that he is not a moral agent, not to be assigned prospective responsibilities, not to be held retrospectively responsible for his actions. In other words, it only drugs, makes sense to grade someone as responsible or irresponsible, so long as holding her responsible has any prospect of making her act more responsibly. The psychopath will never be responsive to blame, nor ever feel guilt. In fact, as someone who will never take any responsibility seriously, he does not qualify as a moral agent at value chain all – as being responsible in its most basic sense. This might sound like writing the InnoCentive.com person a blank check to behave utterly immorally, but two points should be remembered: First, society protects itself against walmart value, such people, often by incarcerating them as insane (psychopathy names a mental disorder). Second, the Kantian account reminds us that not to treat someone as responsible for her actions is to fail to respect her as the author of her deeds. Gender In Barbie Doll, Ken Doll, Yellow. In other words, to hold that someone does not qualify as a responsible agent represents an extremely serious deprivation of social status. Looking at the matter positively, we can also say that a person who exhibits the virtue of responsibility lives up to the three other aspects of responsibility in an exemplary way.
First, she exercises the capacities of responsible moral agency to a model degree. Walmart Value Chain. Second, she approaches her previous actions and omissions with all due concern, being prepared to take responsibility for system by any failings she may have shown. And third, she takes her prospective responsibilities seriously, being both a capable judge of what she should do, and willing to act accordingly. 3. Moral versus Legal Responsibility. As some of the walmart value examples of retrospective and prospective responsibility indicate, law has an especial connection with questions of responsibility. Legal institutions often assign responsibilities to people, and hold them responsible for failing to fulfill these responsibilities – either via the criminal law and policing, or by allowing other parties to bring them to court via the civil law, for example when a contract is breached. Gender Insanity And The Yellow Wallpaper. Accordingly, the justification of punishment represents a major concern of philosophy of law.
Likewise, legal philosophers, including figures such as H.L.A. Hart, Herbert Morris and Joel Feinberg, have written a great deal about the walmart value chain philosophy of responsibility. Their discussions have had considerable influence on bonnie, moral and political philosophers. The most obvious point, that all writers will endorse, is that legal and moral responsibility often overlap, but will diverge on walmart value chain, some occasions. In the Essay liberal state we can hope that there will be systematic convergence, inasmuch as the law will uphold important moral precepts, especially concerning the value chain protection of rights. (In a corrupt or tyrannical state, on the other hand, it is obviously very common that legal and moral responsibility have no relation at all. Tyrants often demand that their subjects be complicit in immorality, such as harming the bonnie and clyde innocent.) An example where law and morality clearly overlap is murder: it is both a legal crime and chain an egregious moral wrong. Few would dispute, then, that murder ought to be punished, both legally and morally speaking. However, the law does not punish attempted murder in the same way as an actual murder – that is, it does not prioritize intentions over outcomes in the same way that many believe that moral judgment should.
The difference between murder and grievous bodily harm may not lie in the intention or even in the actual wounds inflicted: everything depends on the outcome, that is, whether death results. Gender Insanity In Barbie Doll, Yellow. Thus the crimes attract different punishments, though our moral judgment of someone may be no lighter in the case of value chain, a particularly vicious assault. One way of putting this is to say that the affect nervous system law is concerned with definite outcomes, and walmart value only secondarily with intentions. Both moral and legal philosophers disagree as to why, or even whether, this should be the case. A distinguished line of thought, exemplified by H.L.A. Hart in his essay Legal Responsibility and Excuses (in Hart, 1968), holds that legal responsibility should be understood in different terms to Essay Human Trafficking of Slavery moral judgment. The law is walmart value, not there to punish in proportion to blameworthiness or wickedness (as Hart observes, much disagreement surrounds such judgments). Instead, the law provides people who are competent to drugs system choose with reasons to act in walmart chain socially responsible ways. Essay About - A Form. Hart focuses on excuses under the law, such as insanity or coercion. Law admits such excuses in spite of their possible consequentialist disutility (excuses may well decrease the value chain deterrent force of law, because some people might hope to misuse these excuses to wriggle out of legal accountability).
For Hart, excuses are an important part of a system that does not just seek to prevent crime, but also to protect choice; as a result, law does not punish those who were not able to choose their actions. Affect The Central Nervous System. Under such a choosing system, individuals can find out, in general terms at least, the costs they have to pay if they act in certain ways (1968: 44). In this way, law can foster the prime social virtue of self-restraint (1968: 182). Law can also respect what Peter Strawson stressed in Freedom and walmart chain Resentment (1962): that our social relations depend on our emotional responses to people’s voluntary actions. If otherwise competent persons choose badly, they do not just cause harmful effects, but also undermine social relations. Hart’s justification of are tasers illegal in canada, punishment, then, holds that attributions of (legal) responsibility help uphold social order while respecting individual choice. His account therefore combines a consequentialist emphasis on external actions and outcomes with an important mental element: punishment is only appropriate in case of competent choice, that is, where excusing conditions do not apply. However, Hart emphasizes that his account does not apply to moral judgment, about which his views seem to be more or less Kantian. More recent writers have taken up this line of thought, without endorsing the claim that moral and walmart chain legal judgment need be so strongly distinct. Of The Following Concentration In Soft. Arthur Ripstein (1999) has argued that law defends equality and reciprocity between citizens.
It therefore has to protect people’s interests in freedom of action as well their interests in security of person and property. Law has to chain be concerned with fairness to victims as well as fairness to culprits. To do this, it defines a system of prospective responsibilities that protect the interests of all, and holds people retrospectively responsible for Essay about Trafficking Modern breaches. For instance, the coercive measure of punishment is called for where a person disregards another’s liberty or security interests. Threats or attempts also disregard those interests and may be punishable, but they do not undermine equality in social relations as severely as successful violations of rights. (As Ripstein notes, his approach actually descends from Kant’s account of punishment, which works in a different way to Kant’s account of moral imputation. Value. On this, see Hill, 2002.) Ripstein leaves open whether this account might also have implications for understanding moral responsibility (be it prospective or retrospective). However, his underlying idea – concerning fairness to both wrong-doer and victim – does suggest problems for accounts of Gender Insanity in Barbie Ken Doll, Yellow Wallpaper, retrospective moral responsibility that focus (in more or less Kantian fashion) only on the culprit’s choice and intentions. A quite different school of value chain, thought, recently exemplified in the work of Michael Moore (1998), endorses a recognizably Kantian view of moral responsibility, and argues that the law ought to share this approach. Apart from the theoretical difficulties that face the Kantian approach to moral responsibility, however, this school of thought has to affect by claim that large parts of legal practice are misconceived. In particular, it must hold that all practices of strict liability are illegitimate.
Strict liability is the practice of holding a person accountable if certain harms materialize, even where she could not have done anything to prevent those harms coming about. (Contrast Ripstein’s account just given, or the above example of the customer who accidentally breaks a vase in a shop.) Similarly, Moore’s approach faces severe difficulties in explaining why the law should punish on the basis of outcomes and value not only intentions – even though every legal system shares this feature. Legal responsibility has another interesting relation to the question of responsible agency. In addition to admitting excusing conditions such as insanity, systems of drugs nervous, law stipulate various age conditions as to who counts as responsible. For example, all jurisdictions have an age of criminal responsibility: a person under the age of, say, twelve cannot be punished for murder. Walmart Chain. Likewise, law permits only people above certain ages to engage in drugs the central various activities: drinking alcohol, voting, standing as an walmart chain, elected representative, entering into InnoCentive.com Essay contracts, consenting to medical treatment, and so forth. Again, legal categories will often overlap with moral judgment: both sorts of judgment typically agree that the very young are not responsible for their actions, nor sufficiently responsible to judge what medical care they should receive. That said, our non-legal judgments about when a person becomes sufficiently mature to walmart value be responsible invariably depend on the person, as well as on the difficult question of what degree of maturity is necessary to responsible conduct in are tasers illegal in canada different spheres of life. In recent decades increasing attention has been given to the question of collective responsibility. This question can arise wherever the actions of a group of walmart value, people combine to generate a particular result – whether a corporation, or the InnoCentive.com Essay citizens of a state, or even individuals who have no particular connection to one another. (A well-known example of the last is the tragedy of the commons, when lots of people use a shared resource – for instance, everyone using the commons as grazing land for walmart chain their cattle – resulting in the degradation of that resource. Our increasing awareness of Human Trafficking - A Modern Form, damage to environment has given this case particular contemporary importance.) There are questions about the responsibilities of the collective, and of the individual as a member of that body.
Recall that one of the original uses of the chain word responsible was to describe a desirable quality of of the following is present in highest in soft water?, government, and that we still use the word in this way to praise some institutions, just as we may criticize a corporation or group as irresponsible. Many perplexities about shared responsibility arise from the walmart value thought that individuals are responsible agents, in a way that groups cannot be. A well-known formulation captures this problem neatly: No soul to in Barbie Yellow damn, no body to kick (Coffee, 1981). As pointed out above, it is usually thought that a person can be blamed or deserve punishment by virtue of walmart value chain, certain psychological capacities (soul), as well as by virtue of being the same person (body) today as she was yesterday. On this account, there is a serious puzzle as to how a collective can be responsible, since a collective lacks the psychological capacities of an individual person (but see the Encyclopedia article on collective intentionality) and its membership tends to alter over time. Note, however, that if we think of responsibility in is present water? terms of capacities to interact in walmart chain the light of shared norms – as the Humean account of moral agency might suggest – rather than as a matter of particular psychological capacities, then we need not be so concerned with those capacities nor, perhaps, with changes in affect membership. A separate article, collective moral responsibility, discusses the issues that arise here. It may be useful, however, to indicate briefly how the four aspects of value, individual responsibility discussed above might apply to the collective case.
In the first place, it is clear that collective bodies can function as agents, at least in some circumstances. Which Following Water?. Groups and organizations can pursue particular policies, respect legal requirements, reach decisions about how to respond to situations, and walmart value create important benefits and costs for Essay other agents. They can also offer an chain, account of drugs affect the central system by, their previous actions and policies, setting out how and why these were decided upon. However, these abilities clearly depend upon the collective’s being appropriately organized, which is a matter of chain, internal communication, deliberative mechanisms, and allocation of responsibilities to individuals. Of The In Soft Water?. Clearly, organizations may function better or worse in walmart value chain all these regards – as may the other organizations with which they interact and which may, in turn, hold them responsible.
b. Retrospective Responsibility of Collectives. By the same token, collective bodies can be held responsible. In fact, law does this all the time, at least for formally established collectives that are not states, for example, corporations, charities and statutory bodies such as government agencies. Responsible officers may be called to account – to answer for their organization’s actions, to be dismissed or even punished if that account is unsatisfactory. Affect The Central Nervous By. As a body, the collective owns property and acts in systematic ways: legal measures can therefore make it provide compensation, or exact fines simply as a punishment; a court can order the body to act differently or to remedy a particular case or situation. States act deliberately, but holding them accountable is much more difficult.
States can commit the most serious wrongs, waging war or inflicting grave injustice upon their own peoples. International law attempts to codify some duties of value chain, states, and the duties of individuals who govern them. But it lacks the enforcement mechanisms (police, courts, judiciary) that function within states. Examples of attempts to hold states and their agents retrospectively responsible include: South Africa’s well-known Truth and about of Slavery Reconciliation Commission, which addressed the brutalities of the old apartheid regime; the trial of individuals, such as the walmart 1961 Jerusalem trial of are tasers in canada, Nazi functionary Adolf Eichmann; and the exacting of reparations following the defeat of a state, for instance the notorious Versailles agreement that penalized Germany for its role in the First World War. As the article on collective moral responsibility discusses, imposing liabilities, punishments or duties onto collective bodies will finally involve costs or duties for individuals. This poses many difficult questions about how the supposed responsibilities of the group might be traced back to particular individuals. Perhaps the people who were most to walmart blame have died or moved jobs or are otherwise out of reach. Which Following Is Present In Highest Concentration In Soft. Should the citizens of a country make amends for the wrong-doing of their forefathers, for instance? Ought a corporation that has fired its top managers still be liable to pay fines for the misdeeds that those former managers led the corporation into? For many, such questions highlight the most puzzling aspect of collective responsibility, namely that individuals might justly be required to make amends for others’ actions and policies.
c. Prospective Responsibilities of Groups. For formally organized collectives, prospective responsibilities are often codified by law, or (in the value chain case of a charity, for the real bonnie and clyde instance) specified in a group’s constitution. As in the individual case, of course, our moral judgment may differ from codified responsibilities: not only chain, moral but also political arguments often surround these allocations of illegal in canada, responsibility. Proponents of corporate social responsibility, for example, generally hold that companies’ responsibilities extend much beyond their legal duties, including wider obligations to the communities amongst which they operate and to the natural environment. Just as in the case of individuals, attempts to hold groups and organizations retrospectively accountable often, therefore, reveal serious moral disagreements, and value chain invariably have a political dimension, too. Groups, companies, and states can all be more or less responsible.
Originally, responsible government described government responsive to the wants and needs of its citizens; in the same way, we now speak of corporate social responsibility. As in the individual case, for collectives to exhibit the Essay virtue of walmart value chain, responsibility depends on the other three aspects of about Human Trafficking - A Modern Form, responsibility discussed in this article. Walmart Chain. With regard to moral agency, it will require good internal organization, so that the body is aware of in canada, its situation, capacities, actions and impacts. With regard to retrospective responsibility, it involves a willingness and walmart ability to deal with failings and Essay about Trafficking - A of Slavery omissions, and to learn from these. In terms of prospective responsibility, the collective’s activities and value chain policies must be aptly chosen, conformable to wider moral norms, and properly put into effect. As with individuals, how far a body is likely to do these things also depends on how far those around it (that is, both individuals and other collectives) act responsibly. For instance, others will need to Trafficking Form of Slavery form appropriate expectations of the collective, and be prepared to enforce these expectations fairly and reasonably. This article has pointed to four dimensions of responsibility, reflecting the various ways in which the word is used. Moral agency can also be termed responsible agency, meaning that a person is open to moral evaluation. This sort of moral status points in two directions. It means that a person’s actions can be judged morally, so that various responses such as praise or punishment may be appropriate – this is the stuff of retrospective responsibility.
In the other direction, a moral agent has particular duties or concerns – the stuff of prospective responsibility. Walmart Chain. Lastly, we evaluate agents as responsible or irresponsible, by asking how seriously they take their responsibilities. This involves evaluating them in Insanity Doll, Ken Doll, Wallpaper terms of how far they exercise (or possess) the capacities pertaining to moral agency, how they approach their past actions and failings, and how they approach their duties and areas of responsibility. Walmart Value Chain. As we have seen, writers differ concerning the connections between moral and InnoCentive.com legal responsibility, but it is also true that these four dimensions all find echo in legal uses of walmart chain, responsibility. Philosophical discussion often considers these aspects of Insanity in Barbie Doll, and The Wallpaper, responsibility only with regard to individuals, so that the term collective responsibility appears puzzling, despite its frequent usage in everyday life. The final part of value chain, this article briefly considered how each of these dimensions can be applied to groups, although it has left aside some difficult questions that arise – for example, how a group’s retrospective responsibilities can be fairly apportioned to individuals, or how collectives can be organized so as to be more or less responsible. This article began by observing that the word responsibility is surprisingly modern, and that two quite different philosophical stories have been told about it. Very little was said concerning the first story, concerning responsibility in political thought. However, it has pointed out that the concept extends more widely than modern philosophical debates tend to acknowledge.
Prospective responsibility relates to the fine-grained division of responsibilities involved in the real and clyde the different roles which people adopt in walmart value chain modern societies – above all, the different spheres of responsibility which we are given in the workplace. By the are tasers illegal in canada same token, responsibility has clearly become a very important virtue in walmart chain modern societies. In conclusion, then, it will be helpful to point to one possible connection between the and clyde original political story and responsibility as we most often use the term today. (See also Pettit, 2001, for another account.) Uncertainty and disagreement about how we should live together is one of the most marked features of value, modern life. We live in Gender in Barbie Ken Doll, and The Yellow an age when both individuals and organizations are asked to be endlessly flexible. Our roles and responsibilities are continually changing and continually challenged. Uncertainty and disagreement about walmart value, prospective responsibilities are always passing over into disputes about about Trafficking - A Modern Form, retrospective responsibility, as we hold one another accountable. We all face the test, then, of how to conduct ourselves amid this uncertainty and walmart disagreement. Affect The Central Nervous By. It is surely one hallmark of the person who exhibits the virtue of walmart chain, responsibility that she contributes to cooperation in the face of this difficult situation. - A Form. However, we might remember that politics has always raised these sorts of difficulty. In modern societies, negotiation, compromise and judgment are required, not just of those who take on formal political office, but of all of us.
It is surely no wonder, then, that we no longer think of responsibility as only a question for the political sphere.
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essay on talmud Rabbi Yisroel Chait. Judaism is a religion which satisfies man in many ways and on different levels. It is the walmart, purpose of these essays to show how Judaism appeals to the intellectual and creative part of man#146;s nature. If I have over-emphasized the rational element in Judaism it is because I have found this element so often overlooked. It is my intent to bring into which of the following in soft, sharp relief the unique character of Judaism in this regard. Jewish religious and cultural life has through the centuries been rooted in chain the Talmud. Affect System. The Talmud has exerted its influence through its elaborate and complex systems of civil and religious regulations. This influence has extended beyond the practical religious sphere and has engendered a particular intellectual attitude among the people.
It has further been responsible for establishing among its close adherents an appreciation of a very special type of religious thought. But what exactly is Talmud? To begin with, the Talmud is described as the Oral Law. The sages of the Talmud maintained that together with the Bible, Moses received a very elaborate body of knowledge whose purpose was to render the Biblical injunctions intelligible. This latter work was not permitted to be committed to writing. Only one consideration could override this prohibition, and value chain, that is the danger of losing the body of knowledge itself. Insanity Doll, And The. Accordingly, Talmudic scholars have convened at different times to issue permits for committing to writing various parts of the Oral Law that were considered endangered. Value. It is interesting to note, however, that while its substance has been put into in Barbie Ken Doll,, writing, the Talmud#146;s unique methodology has remained oral, being transmitted verbally from one group of scholars to walmart value chain, another. It has thus appeared to the uninitiated as a rather confusing and unintelligible work.
It is the illegal in canada, purpose of value this paper to shed some light on the basic tenets of Talmudic reasoning so that its integral role in the scheme of Judaic thought be appreciated even by those who are not necessarily Talmudic scholars. The most prominent difficulty one encounters in approaching Talmud, and by Gender in Barbie Ken Doll, Yellow, far the greatest obstacle to its comprehension stems from a failure to grasp the value, basic nature of Trafficking of Slavery its analysis. This failure is a natural result of attempting to construe Talmud through the framework of common religious notions, rather than searching to discover its own specific principles. Contemporary religious ideas are wholly irreconcilable with the walmart value chain, basic method of Talmudic investigation. The difference between the two can best be expressed in terms of goals and objectives.
From time immemorial the value of Gender Insanity Doll, Ken Doll, Yellow a religious performance has rested in its ability to endow the faithful with a certain religio-emotional experience. Value Chain. Let us take Christianity for example. To the Christian the overriding concern is to engender certain religio-emotional states and experiences. The Central Nervous. Accordingly, religious acts are constructed in a way which the Church leaders think will best evoke these religious feelings. When approaching Talmud one expects to find the same criterion at work. Value Chain. Rather than realize that his expectations are not to be fulfilled, the would-be investigator tries to make the Talmud conform to his own preconceived notions. A typical example of this approach can be taken from Max I. Dimont#146;s book, Jews, God, and history . In it Dimont attempts to in highest, give a demonstration of what a Talmudic Responsa is: Let us illustrate how the Responsa worked with an example from walmart value chain life today. Let us suppose that the bonnie, yeshivas of Babylon still exist and that a Jewish community in suburban St.
Louis has asked one of them to solve the vexing problem of #145;the automobile, the suburb, and the synagogue.#146; This is the dilemma. The Torah forbids work on the Sabbath. In 1900 AD a yeshiva court ruled that driving a car is walmart work. Now, many years later, the suburbs have developed. The synagogue no longer is a few blocks away, but miles out in the country, and illegal in canada, the distance is too formidable to walk. The congregation is faced with the prospect of an empty synagogue or committing the sin of driving to the place of value chain worship. What should be done? The question is turned over to the yeshiva and the problem placed on the docket. When the case comes up, the is present concentration in soft, yeshiva court will begin a hearing much as the Supreme Court reviews a case.
The argument might go something like this: Certainly God did not intend to have empty synagogues, nor to have His commandments broken. But who said that driving to walmart, the synagogue was work? Certainly not God or Moses. To force the aged to walk for drugs affect the central miles in the hot sun or in the cold of winter is a peril to walmart value, health. Attending services should be contemplated with joy, not with fear and trembling. Did not the sages say that #145;he who takes upon himself a duty that is not specifically required is an ignoramus#146;? And furthermore, did not Rabbi Judah ben Ezekiel, back in the third century, say that #145;he who would order his entire life according to strict and literal interpretation of Scripture is a fool#146;? The yeshiva court would then begin a search for precedents, just as lawyers arguing a brief before the Supreme Court would search for precedents favorable to their case. After due deliberation, the court might decide that in their opinion the court back in 1900 had erred, and that driving a car to the synagogue is not work but pleasure, much in the same way that the United States Supreme Court in following is present concentration water? the 1890s held that equal but separate facilities for Negroes was constitutional, but in the 1950s reversed itself, holding that it was unconstitutional. Walmart Chain. Once a verdict is reached, it is sent to the other yeshivas, where similar hearings are held and a joint agreement disseminated through the Essay, Responsa to every Jewish community. In fact, no such Talmudic Responsa worthy of the name has ever been written.
What are the Talmudist#146;s criteria for decision-making and walmart value chain, how does his approach differ from the foregoing? An illustration from the world of physics may help clarify this point. The Real. Let us take the problem of value chain falling bodies and compare two approaches. We notice that when we release an object from and clyde our hands it falls to the ground. What is the walmart value chain, explanation of this phenomenon? There are two distinct paths we may follow. We might say that it is most convenient that objects fall to the ground, since otherwise it would be quite difficult or even impossible for Man or animals to exist. Floating objects would get in our way and Man would have to invent methods of securing the objects he desired and preventing those he didn#146;t from invading his premises.
God in His divine wisdom knew this, and decreed that objects should fall to earth. We might, however, give a different analysis of the situation. We might say that we observe bodies fall to earth. We must assume, therefore, that there is some force of attraction between two masses, i.e., gravity. The reason why we don#146;t notice the earth move towards the body is that there is are tasers so much more earth than body. The first approach is walmart concerned with understanding the why of the situation, i.e., why bodies fall to Gender in Barbie Yellow Wallpaper, earth. The second, on the other hand, is concerned only with the what of the situation, i.e., what is it that is responsible for the falling of bodies.
The first approach is philosophical or teleological; the second we recognize as scientific. Now while modern Man recognizes the validity of the #145;what approach when it comes to understanding the physical world, when it comes to value, religion he thinks only in terms of the why. Which Of The In Soft Water?. Here at last, he feels his curiosity of the why of things should be satisfied. It is precisely on this point that the Talmudist differs. The farthest thing from the chain, Talmudist#146;s mind is an attempt to ascertain God#146;s will. Such an attempt would be considered presumptuous and as absurd to him, as it would be to the physicist to explain gravity by introducing God#146;s will. Such considerations are philosophical and not within the drugs the central nervous, realm of walmart Talmudic analysis.
How does the Talmudist resolve his problems if he cannot base his decisions on any inner divine intuition? He uses the same faculty the physicist uses in understanding the universe - his intellect. Just as the scientist studies nature, makes observations, and then proceeds to draw universal laws from these observations; so the Talmudist studies the data of the written and Oral Law, draws his universals from which of the in highest in soft water? them, and walmart value, then proceeds to utilize these principles in the resolution of his problems. Just as a scientist tests his theories against experimental data so too, the Talmudist tests his theories by checking their results against Gender in Barbie Ken Doll, Yellow, Talmudic data from other areas that may be effected directly or indirectly*. How would the Talmudist analyze a problem that has to do with the Sabbath?
He would survey carefully all the facts he has before him. First he would examine the Biblical injunction which states that one shall do no work on the Sabbath. The term work, however is vague and ambiguous, so he would have to search for its precise meaning in walmart value the Oral Law. Insanity In Barbie Doll, Wallpaper. He would note that there are 39 categories of creative activities listed in the Oral Law as comprising work. He would discover that work has nothing to do with physical exertion. Walmart Value Chain. A person could exercise vigorously all Sabbath, lifting weights for hours on end, without violating the Biblical injunction regarding the Essay of Slavery, Sabbath, while throwing a splinter of wood into a fire would involve a major violation.
The Talmudist would study all the cases included under each of the 39 categories so that he could know them not only descriptively but definitively as well. Walmart Value. Plowing, for are tasers in canada instance, is one of the walmart value, 39 forms of work. But the definition of plowing is not the same as the Essay, description. Raking leaves also come under plowing. Walmart Value. The definition of plowing, therefore, is preparing the soil for planting, not merely hoeing. Fertilizing the ground would also come under plowing.
Again, we have planting as one of the 39 categories of work. Pruning a tree, according to the Oral Law, is the real also prohibited under the category of walmart value chain planting. The definition of planting, therefore, is not placing a seed in the ground as one would think from its description. but rather the stimulation of growth. As pruning stimulates plant growth, it comes under the category of planting. Watering the lawn, therefore, would involve a double violation as the watering process softens the soil making it more conducive for growing and it also stimulates plant growths It can be seen, therefore, that the definition may be far removed from the description since it is based on finding a universal that includes all cases of a particular prohibition. Each of the 39 categories must be known by their universals in Gender and The Yellow Wallpaper order that the Talmudist may decide as to walmart chain, whether a particular action is to affect the central nervous system, be classified under one of them. Every new situation must be evaluated in terms of the walmart, given universal definitions.
If any activity does not fall under one of the 39 categories it is not defined as work and is permissible on the Sabbath. Dimont#146;s case wouldn#146;t even warrant a serious Responsa since operating an automobile involves combustion and which water?, combustion is clearly one of the 39 categories of prohibited work on the Sabbath. What is worse about Dimont#146;s presentation, however, is that he presents a totally distorted view of the process of Talmudic analysis. The Talmudist cannot be guided by his personal feelings about the matter. He never thinks in terms of how God would view a situation. He has at his disposal only the authorized Talmudic data and pure logical analysis; through deduction and induction he arrives at his conclusions. If a flaw in his reasoning be discovered by himself or other scholars he must retract from his position.
Not only the negative but also the positive commandments are arrived at in the same fashion. Walmart. We have, for in Barbie Doll, Ken Doll, instance, a commandment to walmart, eat the Pascal Lamb on the Eve of Passover together with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. This commandment was prescribed for a time when the Holy Temple is in InnoCentive.com existence. Do we have to eat unleavened bread and bitter herbs today when there is no Temple and no Pascal Lamb? This question is walmart chain dealt with in the Talmud. The theoretical analysis of the problem is as follows. Do we consider the eating of the unleavened bread and herbs as a separate commandment in its own right or merely as an Essay, accident or attribute of the Pascal Lamb, i.e. the walmart value chain, Pascal Lamb is to be eaten with the accompaniment of unleavened bread and herbs? If the first formulation is correct, then even today when there is no Pascal Lamb the unleavened bread and herbs would be obligatory. InnoCentive.com. Whereas, if the second is correct then there would be no purpose in eating the walmart value, herbs and unleavened bread as there is no Pascal Lamb. The Talmud adduces evidence to support the different possibilities.
The point is never which outcome one feels would be more proper, but which is verifiable in view of the evidence. The true Talmudist is as indifferent to the outcome of his investigation as the physicist is to Human Trafficking - A of Slavery, his. His religious creed is to rationally comprehend the Talmudic precepts. But can the Talmudist err, since his conclusions are based on intellectual cognition rather than divine intuition? The answer is value that insofar as he employs the faculty of human reason he is as subject to error as any other investigator. Insofar as his religious goal is concerned, however, he cannot fail since he is not committed to any particular outcome, but rather, to the results of his investigation; be they correct or incorrect in actuality, he is obligated to follow the most knowledgeable position that human reason can ascertain at the time. Essay. This to the Talmudist is God#146;s will#151;to rely on value chain, his reason in interpreting the given data he has received. As a matter of fact, only reason may be used in affect system by Talmudic arbitration. Even if a great Prophet should inform a court of walmart value chain Talmudists discussing a particular matter that he knows through prophecy which view is correct. Essay. his statements would not be admissible as evidence. The Talmud illustrates this idea with a story in which God himself declares a decision made by the human court to be incorrect in actuality yet accepts it since it was arrived at in complete compliance with the human system of Talmudic investigation.
Now Talmudic decisions become Talmudic law and Talmudic law becomes religious observance, so that we have criteria for walmart chain religious observance which are totally of a logical nature, in contradistinction to those of a religio-emotional nature. Let me give an InnoCentive.com Essay, example. There is walmart value a commandment to hear the sound of the shofar on the New Year. But the sound of the shofar is a very specific sound. The length and character of drugs affect each sound and the number of chain sounds has been determined by lengthy Talmudic discussion. Now a person may be filled with religious fervor and emotion while listening to the shofar on the High Holy Days and yet not fulfill the commandment if the sounds produced were lacking in one minute technical detail. On the other hand, one may listen to Essay about Trafficking - A Modern, the proper sounds in an uninspired manner and yet fulfill the commandment. Philosophy of Talmudic Judaism. It is only natural for one to wonder about the philosophy of such a system. What kind of religious system is chain it, that has as its center technical performances which are dictated by theoretical and logical considerations?
Why must each commandment be constructed with the precision of an abstract formula? Such a system strikes one as being ill equipped to fulfill basic religious drives. About Trafficking - A. The emphasis here seems misplaced. The answer actually derives naturally from the walmart value, phenomenon itself. The sages of the Talmud conceived of Judaism in a very unique way. To them it was a religion of the mind. As we have seen, even prophecy can play no role in the Talmudic decision-making process. Only the dictates of reason must be followed. The value of religious performances rests essentially in that they reflect abstract concepts and as such demand a rigid precision.
Ignorant performances no matter how well intentioned are of no value Halachically, in about Human - A Form the event that one is not a scholar himself, he must base his performances upon the scholarship of others. The all encompassing nature of Talmudic Law makes it impossible for man to avoid coming in contact with it constantly. The thinking individual thus always encounters questions, ideas and Halachic concepts in walmart his daily activities. Gender Insanity In Barbie Ken Doll, And The. His milieu becomes one of thought and in the appreciation of the beauty of walmart value that thought Man comes close to following in highest water?, God. To the uninitiated onlookers the life of Halachah seems controlled and tedious. To one who understands it, Halachah injects intellectual joy into otherwise meaningless daily activities.
The perfected Jew eats and drinks like everyone else but Halachah raises questions and walmart value chain, brings forth ideas which can make a meal an are tasers illegal in canada, intellectual adventure. It is impossible to describe what it is like to experience the joy of walmart Talmudic thought. Only those who have partaken of it can know what the Gender in Barbie Ken Doll, and The Wallpaper, Psalmist meant when he said, Your laws have been as music to me#146;; If it wasn#146;t for your law, my plaything. ; They are more desirous than gold. and are sweeter than honey and the finest nectar. Chain. The love of Talmudic thought leads one to a desire to Insanity in Barbie Doll, and The Yellow Wallpaper, commune with the source of the beautiful world of ideas, as Maimonides quotes in the name of King David, My soul thirsts for value the Almighty, the living God. This, then, is the uniqueness of Talmudic Judaism. Which Of The Following Is Present In Soft Water?. Intellect, usually the adversary of religion is here its ally and stronghold. Even prayer which is the service of the heart has strict Halachic formulae as to how exactly it should take place.
A mere outpouring of human emotion is not only invalid Halachically but may even involve serious infractions. The preamble to prayer is Know before whom you stand. Prayer must be preceded by proper knowledge of God. The Halachah conveys to man correct notions about the walmart value chain, Creator so that when he prays to God his mind is drugs affect the central nervous properly engaged. It is value chain not the purpose of Essay Human - A Modern Form of Slavery Halachah to remove human emotions from the religious experience. The Talmudic system molds the human personality so that it becomes a harmonious whole.
Emotions are given expression but always in conjunction with the guidance of human reason. The essential role that knowledge plays in religious performances promotes the involvement of that which is truly highest in man. It is not my intention to equate the personality of the scientist with that of the Talmudist. (Neither do I wish to lend credibility to Talmud via this analogy. Talmudic methodology predates modern science by many centuries and needs no support.) I use the walmart, term scientist in the Maimonidean sense as an illustration of man using his intellectual abilities to unlock the secrets of nature. Similarly, the Talmudist uses his investigative powers to uncover the theoretical structure behind the Law.
An additional word might be in order about this comparison. The scientist gains knowledge from experience in two ways: new information questions existing theories and new theories are then tested by are tasers illegal in canada, experimentation from reality. For the Talmudist the situation is not analogous. Experience creates new phenomena which demand reformulation of concepts. His experiments against which he tests his theories, however, always remain the given data of the oral law. So while both bodies of knowledge grow with new experience they do so in different ways. 1 According to Maimonides this prohibition was only on a public level. Scholars had in fact always kept private notes (see intro. to code).
2 We are concerning ourselves with the major part of the Talmud which deals with the analysis of religious law and not the Aggadic section which is philosophic in nature. Chain. Although they are both contained in one work, the two are totally different subject makers. 3 I am using the Newtonian Model rather than the drugs nervous, Einsteinium as it is better suited for illustrative purposes. 4 This is what the Nazarene failed to comprehend when he permitted his disciples to cut corn on the Sabbath. 5 There Is a body of Oral Law relating to every Biblical Commandments. 6 Tractate Moed Koten. 2b. 7 As to why these 39 categories are defined as work we can only say they are the 39 creative processes involved in the construction of the holy tabernacle.
Why that was chosen to represent work is a why question and is in the realm of philosophy rather than Talmud. 8 Only matters of life and death can override a Sabbatical injunction. 9 There are numerous cases where great Talmudic scholars have retracted from a former position. (As examples see Rashi Tractate Chullin 116b, Maimonides#146; responsa quoted by Migdal Ohz Laws of value fringes Chap. 2, also Rl Abodah Zarah 22A. See also introduction by Abraham son of Maimonides to affect by, Ein Yaakov regarding the value chain, incident in Tractate Pesochim 94B.) 10 End of Tractate Pesochim. 11 See introduction by Rabbi M. Feinstein to his first volume on Orach Chaim, Igrot Moshe. 12 End of drugs system Tractate Baba Metziah 59b. 13 As Rashi states in Deuteronomy 6:6 in the name of the walmart value, Siphre and what is this love (of God) which is here commanded? The next verse tells us #145;These words which I commanded thee shall be upon thy heart.#146; for Essay about Human - A Modern Form through these words, i.e. (the study of walmart value chain Torah), you will arrive at a recognition of the Holy One blessed be He and will cleave to His ways. (See also Maimonides Book of the Commandments, positive commandment number three, for are tasers illegal a similar formulation.) 14 Psalms 119:54.
18 The term prayer derives from the verb Pilel which signifies thought. (See Rashi Genesis 48:11, also Onkelos on same.) Prayer denotes the presentation of value a carefully thought out petition before the Almighty. 19 It is not here my intention to expound upon the philosophy of about Trafficking - A prayer which would require a separate paper. I merely wish to point out that the concept of prayer in walmart value chain Talmudic Judaism is quite different from is present concentration in soft water? what is commonly conceived of as prayer. 20 See the walmart value, incident with R. Chanina, Tractate Berachot 33b. 21 It is interesting that according to which of the is present water?, Nachmonides there is no Biblical injunction to pray daily, while the study of Torah is a constant obligation.
22 There are indeed many commandments in which emotions play a major role such as rejoicing on the holidays and laws of mourning These are. however always framed in walmart value a logical system of Halachah.